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Processor Architecture

From Dataflow to Superscalar and Beyond. Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1999. Book. Sprache:…
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A survey of architectural mechanisms and implementation techniques for exploiting fine- and coarse-grained parallelism within microprocessors. Beginning with a review of past techniques, the monograph provides a comprehensive account of state-of-the-... weiterlesen
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Titel: Processor Architecture
Autor/en: Borut Robic, Jurij Silc, Theo Ungerer

ISBN: 3540647988
EAN: 9783540647980
From Dataflow to Superscalar and Beyond.
Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1999.
Book.
Sprache: Englisch.
Springer Berlin Heidelberg

8. Juni 1999 - kartoniert - 416 Seiten

Beschreibung

A survey of architectural mechanisms and implementation techniques for exploiting fine- and coarse-grained parallelism within microprocessors. Beginning with a review of past techniques, the monograph provides a comprehensive account of state-of-the-art techniques used in microprocessors, covering both the concepts involved and implementations in sample processors. The whole is rounded off with a thorough review of the research techniques that will lead to future microprocessors. XXXXXXX Neuer Text This monograph surveys architectural mechanisms and implementation techniques for exploiting fine-grained and coarse-grained parallelism within microprocessors. It presents a comprehensive account of state-of-the-art techniques used in microprocessors that covers both the concepts involved and possible implementations. The authors also provide application-oriented methods and a thorough review of the research techniques that will lead to the development of future processors.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

1. Basic Pipelining and Simple RISC Processors.- 1.1 The RISC Movement in Processor Architecture.- 1.2 Instruction Set Architecture.- 1.3 Examples of RISC ISAs.- 1.4 Basic Structure of a RISC Processor and Basic Cache MMU Organization.- 1.5 Basic Pipeline Stages.- 1.6 Pipeline Hazards and Solutions.- 1.6.1 Data Hazards and Forwarding.- 1.6.2 Structural Hazards.- 1.6.3 Control Hazards, Delayed Branch Technique, and Static Branch Prediction.- 1.6.4 Multicycle Execution.- 1.7 RISC Processors.- 1.7.1 Early Scalar RISC Processors.- 1.7.2 Sun microSPARC-II.- 1.7.3 MIPS R3000.- 1.7.4 MIPS R4400.- 1.7.5 Other Scalar RISC Processors.- 1.7.6 Sun picoJava-I.- 1.8 Lessons learned from RISC.- 2. Dataflow Processors.- 2.1 Dataflow Versus Control-Flow.- 2.2 Pure Dataflow.- 2.2.1 Static Dataflow.- 2.2.2 Dynamic Dataflow.- 2.2.3 Explicit Token Store Approach.- 2.3 Augmenting Dataflow with Control-Flow.- 2.3.1 Threaded Dataflow.- 2.3.2 Large-Grain Dataflow.- 2.3.3 Dataflow with Complex Machine Operations.- 2.3.4 RISC Dataflow.- 2.3.5 Hybrid Dataflow.- 2.4 Lessons learned from Dataflow.- 3. CISC Processors.- 3.1 A Brief Look at CISC Processors.- 3.2 Out-of-Order Execution.- 3.3 Dynamic Scheduling.- 3.3.1 Scoreboarding.- 3.3.2 Tomasulo's Scheme.- 3.3.3 Scoreboarding versus Tomasulo's Scheme.- 3.4 Some CISC Microprocessors.- 3.5 Conclusions.- 4. Multiple-Issue Processors.- 4.1 Overview of Multiple-Issue Processors.- 4.2 I-Cache Access and Instruction Fetch.- 4.3 Dynamic Branch Prediction and Control Speculation.- 4.3.1 Branch-Target Buffer or Branch-Target Address Cache.- 4.3.2 Static Branch Prediction Techniques.- 4.3.3 Dynamic Branch Prediction Techniques.- 4.3.4 Predicated Instructions and Multipath Execution.- 4.3.5 Prediction of Indirect Branches.- 4.3.6 High-Bandwidth Branch Prediction.- 4.4 Decode.- 4.5 Rename.- 4.6 Issue and Dispatch.- 4.7 Execution Stages.- 4.8 Finalizing Pipelined Execution.- 4.8.1 Completion, Commitment, Retirement and Write-Back.- 4.8.2 Precise Interrupts.- 4.8.3 Reorder Buffers.- 4.8.4 Checkpoint Repair Mechanism and History Buffer.- 4.8.5 Relaxing In-order Retirement.- 4.9 State-of-the-Art Superscalar Processors.- 4.9.1 Intel Pentium family.- 4.9.2 AMD-K5, K6 and K7 families.- 4.9.3 Cyrix M II and M 3 Processors.- 4.9.4 DEC Alpha 21x64 family.- 4.9.5 Sun UltraSPARC family.- 4.9.6 HAL SPARC64 family.- 4.9.7 HP PA-7000 family and PA-8000 family.- 4.9.8 MIPS R10000 and descendants.- 4.9.9 IBM POWER family.- 4.9.10 IBM/Motorola/Apple PowerPC family.- 4.9.11 Summary.- 4.10 VLIW and EPIC Processors.- 4.10.1 TI TMS320C6x VLIW Processors.- 4.10.2 EPIC Processors, Intel's IA-64 ISA and Merced Processor.- 4.11 Conclusions on Multiple-Issue Processors.- 5. Future Processors to use Fine-Grain Parallelism.- 5.1 Trends and Principles in the Giga Chip Era.- 5.1.1 Technology Trends.- 5.1.2 Application-and Economy-Related Trends.- 5.1.3 Architectural Challenges and Implications.- 5.2 Advanced Superscalar Processors.- 5.3 Superspeculative Processors.- 5.4 Multiscalar Processors.- 5.5 Trace Processors.- 5.6 DataScalar Processors.- 5.7 Conclusions.- 6. Future Processors to use Coarse-Grain Parallelism.- 6.1 Utilization of more Coarse-Grain Parallelism.- 6.2 Chip Multiprocessors.- 6.2.1 Principal Chip Multiprocessor Alternatives.- 6.2.2 TI TMS320C8x Multimedia Video Processors.- 6.2.3 Hydra Chip Multiprocessor.- 6.3 Multithreaded Processors.- 6.3.1 Multithreading Approach for Tolerating Latencies.- 6.3.2 Comparison of Multithreading and Non-Multithreading Approaches.- 6.3.3 Cycle-by-Cycle Interleaving.- 6.3.4 Block Interleaving.- 6.3.5 Nanothreading and Microthreading.- 6.4 Simultaneous Multithreading.- 6.4.1 SMT at the University of Washington.- 6.4.2 Karlsruhe Multithreaded Superscalar.- 6.4.3 Other Simultaneous Multithreading Processors.- 6.5 Simultaneous Multithreading versus Chip Multiprocessor.- 6.6 Conclusions.- 7. Processor-in-Memory, Reconfigurable, and Asynchronous Processors.- 7.1 Processor-in-Memory.- 7.1.1 The Processor-in-Memory Principle.- 7.1.2 Processor-in-Memory approaches.- 7.1.3 The Vector IRAM approach.- 7.1.4 The Active Page model.- 7.2 Reconfigurable Computing.- 7.2.1 Concepts of Reconfigurable Computing.- 7.2.2 The MorphoSys system.- 7.2.3 Raw Machine.- 7.2.4 Xputers and KressArrays.- 7.2.5 Other Projects.- 7.3 Asynchronous Processors.- 7.3.1 Asynchronous Logic.- 7.3.2 Projects.- 7.4 Conclusions.- Acronyms.- References.

Portrait

Prof. Dr. Theo Ungerer ist Professor für Systemnahe Informatik mit Schwerpunkt Kommunikationssysteme und Internet-Anwendungen am Institut für Informatik der Universität Augsburg. Zudem ist er wissenschaftlicher Direktor des Rechenzentrums und Mitglied des Lenkungsrates des IT-Servicezentrums der Universität Augsburg.§Seine wissenschaftlichen Interessen gelten den Gebieten der Prozessorarchitektur sowie der eingebetteten und ubiquitären Systeme. Theo Ungerer hat über 150 wissenschaftliche Publikationen und 6 Fachbücher veröffentlicht. Er ist Mitglied des Lenkungsrates und deutscher Koordinator des EU-Exzellenznetzwerkes HiPEAC- High Performance Embedded Architectures and Compilers

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