Titel: Dimethylsulphide: Oceans, Atmosphere and Climate
Proceedings of the International Symposium held in Belgirate, Italy, 13-15 October 1992.
'Air Pollution Research Reports'.
Herausgegeben von G. Angeletti, G. Restelli
30. September 1993 - gebunden - 416 Seiten
Since the discovery by J. E. Lovelock, R. J. Maggs and R. A. Rasmussen, in 1972, of its ubiquity in sea water, dimethyl sulphide (DMS) , a biologically produced sulphur compound, has been the subject of continuously increasing interest by the scientific community. DMS was immediately recognized as an important component of the biogeochemical sulphur cycle, and is now indicated as the second most important source of sulphur in the atmosphere, after anthropogenic so emission from fossil fuel combustion and 2 industry. DMS reacts rapidly in the atmosphere where it is oxidized to condensable acidic sulphur products; in fact, rainwater acidification, observed in remote areas, is attributed to DMS emissions. The hypothesis of a climatic role of DMS was made already in 1983 by B. Shaw, and by B. C. Nguyen, B. Bonsang and A. Gaudry. In 1987, a study appeared in Nature, in. which R. J. Charlson, J. E. Lovelock, M. O. Andreae and S. G. Warren suggested the possibility of a partial control of the climate by the biosphere through a chain of processes, linking production of DMS by marine phytoplankton with changes in clouds albedo. The publication of this paper triggered a strong debate and stimulated new efforts to describe the various aspects of the DMS cycle in the environment. The paper was timely and added to the discussion on the relative roles of atmospheric sulphur and greenhouse gases in the Earth's radiative budget.
Production by Marine Phytoplancton.- Production of DMS by Marine Phytoplankton.- Assessment of the Role of Zooplankton in the Cycling of DMSP and DMS in the Water Column during EUMELI-4 (France - JGOFS).- The Cycling of Sulfur in Surface Seawater during PSI-3.- Ecophysiology of Ice Algae (Antarctica): Dimethylsulfoniopropionate Content and Release of Dimethylsulfide during Ice Melt.- Isolation of Marine Dimethylsulfide-Oxidizing Bacteria.- Aspects of the Biogeochemistry of Dimethylsulfide (DMS) and Dimethylsulfopropionate (DMSP) at an Antarctic Coastal Site.- The Production of DMS by a Plankton Community: A Mesocosm Experiment.- A Model of Dimethylsulphide Production during a Phytoplankton Bloom.- Field Measurements.- Dimethylsulfide Field Measurements.- Dimethylsulfide and Aerosol Measurements at Ross Island, Antarctica.- Measurements of Atmospheric and Seawater DMS Concentrations in the Atlantic, the Arctic and Antarctic Region.- Biogenic Sulphur in the Marine Boundary Layer of the Arctic the International Arctic Ocean Expedition, 1991.- Measurement of Dimethylsulfide, Sulfur Dioxide, Methanesulfonic Acid and Non Sea Salt Sulfate at Cape Grim Baseline Station.- Caracterization of Parameters Controlling Atmospheric Concentrations of Biogenic Dimethylsulphide Near a Coastal Algae Field.- Dimethylsulphide Measurements at Baring Head, New Zealand.- The Role of Methanesulphonic Acid in Snow Samples from Terra Nova Bay (Antarctica).- Preliminary Data on DMS Concentration in Seawater Samples Collected from the La Spezia Gulf (Ligurian Sea).- Dimethylsulphide and Other Volatile Organic Sulphur Compounds in Some Neglected Ecosystems: A Study in Evaporitic Environments and in Sulphate-Rich Karstic Lakes.- Stable Sulfur Isotope Ratios: Source Indicators.- Atmospheric Chemistry.- The Atmospheric Oxidation of Dimethylsulfide: Elementary Steps in a Complex Mechanism.- FT-IR Product Study of the Photolysis of CH3SSCH3: Reactions of the CH3S Radical.- Mechanistic Studies of the OH-Initiated Oxidation of Dimethylsulfide.- Overview and Atmospheric Significance of the Results from Laboratory Kinetic Studies Performed within the CEC Project "OCEANO-NOx".- Field Studies of Atmospheric DMS Chemistry Using Selected Ion Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry.- Kinetic and Mechanistic Study of the Reaction of Atomic Chlorine with Dimethylsulfide.- Production of Peroxy-Radicals in the DMS Oxidation during Night-Time.- Laboratory and Modelling Studies of the Formation of a Stable Intermediate in the Night-Time Oxidation of DMS.- Do Dimethylsulphide Emissions from the North Atlantic Contribute to Rainwater Acidity and the Atmospheric Sulphur Burden in the UK?.- Gas-to-Particle Conversion and CCN Production.- Gas-to-Particle Conversion and CCN Production.- Pacific Marine Aerosol: Equatorial Gradients in Sulfate, Ammonium and Chlorophyll.- Formation and Distrubution of Cloud Condensation Nuclei in the Marine Environment.- Are Dimethylsulfide and Condensation Nuclei Connected over the Tropical Northeastern Atlantic Ocean?.- Cloud Condensation Nuclei from Dimethylsulphide in the Natural Marine Boundary Layer: Remote vs. In-Situ Production.- Equatorial Convection as a Source of Tropospheric Nuclei over the Remote Pacific.- Relationship between DMS-Derived Particulate Mass, Particle Surface Area, and CN and CCN Number Concentrations.- Global Modelling and Climatic Implications.- Atmospheric Concentration of DMS and Its Oxidation Products Estimated in a Global 3-D Model.- Recent Field Studies of Sulfur Gases; Particles and Clouds in Clean Marine Air and Their Significance with Respect to the DMS-Cloud-Climate Hypothesis.- Modelling of the Sulphur Cycle. From DMS to Cloud Particles.- Model Study of the Ratio between Methanesulphonic Acid (MSA) and Non Sea Salt-Sulphate in Coastal Air.- A Physical Receptor Model Applied to Aerosol Data from Northeastern Greenland.- Recognition and Inventory of Oceanic Clouds from Satellite Data Using an Artificial Neural Network Technique.