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Photoreceptors and Calcium

'Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology'. Auflage 2002. Book. Sprache: Englisch.
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2 The role of Ca+ as an internal messenger in visual transduction of vertebrate and invertebrate organisms has been explored intensely in the recent past. Since the 2 early 1970s, calcium ions and cyclic GMP (whose levels are controlled by Ca+ in ver … weiterlesen
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Photoreceptors and Calcium als Buch

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Titel: Photoreceptors and Calcium

ISBN: 0306474158
EAN: 9780306474156
'Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology'.
Auflage 2002.
Book.
Sprache: Englisch.
Herausgegeben von Wolfgang Baehr, Krzysztof Palczewski
Springer US

31. Januar 2003 - gebunden - 656 Seiten

Beschreibung

2 The role of Ca+ as an internal messenger in visual transduction of vertebrate and invertebrate organisms has been explored intensely in the recent past. Since the 2 early 1970s, calcium ions and cyclic GMP (whose levels are controlled by Ca+ in vertebrates) have been recognized as important second messengers. Particularly in 2 the last decade, however, the role of Ca+ in visual transduction has been re-evalu­ ated and a proliferation of research has documented a multiplicity of roles. 2 It is now evident that Ca+ modulates phototransduction by acting at several 2 sites through a host of small Ca+ -binding proteins. For example, in phototransduction 2 of vertebrates, Ca+-free forms of guanylate cyclase activating proteins (GCAPs) activate guanylate cyclase, modulating levels of cOMP, a key event in the return of photoreceptors to pre-bleach conditions. Defects in genes encoding guanylate cy­ clase or guanylate cyclase activating proteins lead to severe diseases of the retina (e. g. , Leber congenital amaurosis, rod/cone dystrophy, or cone dystrophy), thus em­ phasizing the important role of these proteins in phototransduction. Similarly, mu­ 2 tant genes encoding cation or Ca+ channels (cyclic nucleotide-gated cation chan­ 2 nels located in the cell membrane and L-type voltage-gated Ca+ channels located at the synapse of photo receptors) lead to retinitis pigmentosa or congenital stationary night blindness. In phototransduction of invertebrate organisms (e. g. , Drosophila 2 and Limulus), the role of Ca+ is similarly central, but distinct, from that of vertebrates.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

1. Calcium and Phototransduction; K. Nakatani, et al. 2. The Calcium Gradient Along the Rod Outer Segment; K.N. Leibovic. 3. The Time Course of Light Adaptation in Vertebrate Retinal Rods; P.D. Calvert, C.L. Makino. 4. S-Modulin; S. Kawamura, S. Tachibanaki. 5. Ca2+-Dependent Control of Rhodopsin Phosphorylation: Recoverin and Rhodopsin Kinase; I.I. Senin, et al. 6. Recoverin and Rhodopsin Kinase; C.-K.J. Chen. 7. Pathological Roles of Recoverin in Cancer-Associated Retinopathy; H. Ohguro, M. Nakazawa. 8. RGS9-1 Phosphorylation and Ca2+; T.G. Wensel. 9. Phosphorylation by Cyclin-Dependent Protein Kinase 5 of the Regulatory Subunit (Plambda) of Retinal cGMP Phosphodiesterase (PDE6): Its Implications in Phototransduction; A. Yamazaki, et al. 10. Centrins, a Novel Group of Ca2+-Binding Proteins in Vertebrate Photoreceptor Cells; U. Wolfrum, et al. 11. Tuning Outer Segment Ca2+ Homeostasis to Phototransduction in Rods and Cones; J.I. Korenbrot, T.I. Rebrik. 12. Regulation of the Rod Photoreceptor Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated Channel; R. Warren, R.S. Molday. 13. Ca2+-Channels in the RPE; R. Rosenthal, O. Straubeta. 14. The Retinal Rod and Cone Na+/Ca2+-K+ Exchangers; C.F.M. Prinsen, et al. 15. The Complex of cGMP-Gated Channel and Na+/Ca2+,K+ Exchanger in Rod Photoreceptors; P.J. Bauer. 16. Regulation of Voltage-Sensitive Ca2+ Channels in Bipolar Cells by Divalent Cations and Polyamines; E.M. Lasater, E. Solessio. 17. Site-Directed and Natural Mutations in Studying Functional Domains in Guanylyl Cyclase Activating Proteins (GCAPs); A. Dizhoor. 18. Calmodulin and Ca2+-Binding Proteins (CABPS): Variations on a Theme; F. Haeselaar, K. Palczewski. 19. GCAPs: Ca2+-Sensitive Regulators of retGC; W.A. Gorczycal, I. Sokal. 20. Structure and Membrane-Targeting Mechanism of Retinal Ca2+-binding Proteins, Recoverin and GCAP-2; J.B. Ames, M. Ikura. 21. Target Recognition of Guanylate Cyclase by Guanylate Cyclase-Activating Proteins; K.-W. Koch. 22. Mouse Model to Study GCAP Functions in Intact Photoreceptors; A. Mendez, J. Chen. 23. Calcium-Dependent Activation of Guanylate Cyclase by S100b; A. Sitaramayya. 24. The Role of Cadherins in Ca2+-Mediated Cell Adhesion and Inherited Photoreceptor Degeneration; H. Bolz, et al. 25. Guanylate Cyclase Activating Proteins, Guanylate Cyclase and Disease; R.J. Newbold, et al. 26. Using Mutant Mice to Study the Role of Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels in the Retina; S.L. Ball, R.G. Gregg. 27. Caldendrins in the Inner Retina; C.I. Seidenbecher, et al. 28. Calcium Channels at the Photoreceptor Synapse; S. Barnes, M.E.M. Kelly. 29. On Bipolar Cells: Following in the Footsteps of Phototransduction; M.M. Slaughter, G.B. Awatramani. 30. Ca2+ Regulation of Drosophila Phototransduction; J.E. O'Tousa. 31. Simultaneous Roles for Ca2+ in Excitation and Adaptation of Limulus Ventral Photoreceptors;
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