Titel: Notable Selections in Marriage and the Family
Autor/en: Robert Delcampo
November 1998 - gebunden
Part 1. Foundations of Marriage and the Family
CHAPTER 1. Definitions of the Family
1.1. William J. Lederer and Don D. Jackson, from The Mirages of Marriage
"[M]aarriage used to be an institution for the physical survival and well-being of two people and their offspring.... Today we have primarily the struggle for psychological and emotional survival.... But so far, the changes in the structure, form, and processes of marriage have been too few and too unsystematic to cope with the new psychological and emotional problems."
1.2. Ernest W. Burgess, from "The Family as a Unity of Interacting Personalities," The Family
"At any rate the actual unity of family life has its existence not in any legal conception, nor in any formal contract, but in the interaction of its members.... The family lives as long as interaction is taking place and only dies when it ceases."
1.3. Ira L. Reiss, from "The Universality of the Family: A Conceptual Analysis," Journal of Marriage and the Family
"[F]oollowing is the universal definition of the family institution: The family institution is a small kinship structured group with the key function of nurturant socialization of the newborn."
CHAPTER 2. Theoretical Approaches to the Study of the Family
2.1. Carlfred Broderick and James Smith, from "The General Systems Approach to the Family," in Wesley R. Burr et al., eds., Contemporary Theories About the Family, vol. 2
"`A system is a set of objects together with relationships between the objects and between their attributes..'.. Implicit in the definition is the existence of a boundary that delineates the elements belonging to the system and those belonging to its environment."
2.2. David H. Olson, Douglas H. Sprenkle, and Candyce S. Russell, from "Circumplex Model of Marital and Family Systems: I. Cohesion and Adaptability Dimensions, Family Types, and Clinical Applications," Family Process
"At the extreme of high family cohesion, enmeshment, there is an overidentification with the family that results in extreme bonding and limited individual autonomy. The low extreme, disengagement, is characterized by low bonding and high autonomy from the family."
2.3. George C. Homans, from "Social Behavior as Exchange," The American Journal of Sociology
"If we define profit as reward less cost, and if cost is value foregone, I suggest that we have here some evidence for the proposition that change in behavior is greatest when perceived profit is least."
Part 2. Mate Selection and Marriage
CHAPTER 3. Premarital Relationships
3.1. Willard Waller, from "The Rating and Dating Complex," American Sociological Review
"Although there are endless variations in courtship customs, they are always functionally related to the total configuration of the culture and the biological needs of the human animal."
3.2. Margaret Mead and Rhoda Metraux, from A Way of Seeing
"I believe that we need two types of marriage, one of which can (though it need not) develop into the other, each with its own possibilities and special forms of responsibility. The first type of marriage may be called an individual marriage, binding together two individuals only.... [T]hhe second type of marriage parental marriage, would be explicitly directed toward the founding of a family."
3.3. Carl A. Ridley, Dan J. Peterman, and Arthur W. Avery, from "Cohabitation: Does It Make for a Better Marriage?" The Family Coordinator
"The degree to which cohabiting experiences prepare individuals for marriage depends in part on the needs, goals, motivations, and competence of the persons involved."
CHAPTER 4. Theories of Mate Selection
4.1. Alan C. Kerckhoff and Keith E. Davis, from "Value Consensus and Need Complementarity in Mate Selection," American Sociological Review
"[A] series of `filtering factors' operate in mate selection at different stages of the selection process.... [S]oocial status variables (class, religion, etc.) operate in the early stages, consensus on values somewhat later, and need complementarity still later."
4.2. Robert F. Winch, from "Another Look at the Theory of Complementary Needs in Mate-Selection," Journal of Marriage and the Family
"In mate-selection each individual seeks within his or her field of eligibles for that person who gives the greatest promise of providing him or her with maximum need gratification."
4.3. Bernard I. Murstein, from "Stimulus--Value--Role: A Theory of Marital Choice," Journal of Marriage and the Family
"The more `A' likes `B,' the more he discloses his private world to `B.' In a `dating' situation, such a disclosure is rewarding to `B' because it marks him as worthy of receiving intimate information and, accordingly, raises his self-esteem."
CHAPTER 5. Marital Adjustment
5.1. Harvey J. Locke and Karl M. Wallace, from "Short Marital-Adjustment and Prediction Tests: Their Reliability and Validity," Marriage and Family Living
"[M]aarital-adjustment and marital-prediction tests, constructed with a relatively small number of basic and fundamental items, achieve results approximately comparable with the longer and more complex adjustment and prediction tests."
5.2. William Stephens, from "Predictors of Marital Adjustment," in William Stephens, ed., Reflections on Marriage
"[T]hhe data seem to say that conventional people and conventional marriages stand the best chance.... Perhaps it merely happens that conventional people are less willing to seek divorce, and less able to face the truth about their marriages when they take marital adjustment tests. Perhaps, but I think not."
CHAPTER 6. Marital Role Satisfaction
6.1. Robert O. Blood, Jr., and Donald M. Wolfe, from Husbands and Wives: The Dynamics of Married Living
"The balance of power between husband and wife is a sensitive reflection of the roles they play in marriage--and, in turn, has many repercussions on other aspects of their relationship."
6.2. John F. Cuber and Peggy B. Harroff, from "The More Total View: Relationships Among Men and Women of the Upper Middle Class," Marriage and Family Living
"[T]hhe more overriding generalization about man-woman relationships in marriage is that continuity based upon `alien considerations,' mere tradition, practical convenience, austere social sanctions, appear to be the rule rather than the exception, and that what we have called qualitatively good relationships are the exception rather than the rule."
Part 3. Parenthood
CHAPTER 7. Maternal Attachment
7.1. Mary D. Salter Ainsworth, from "Infant-Mother Attachment," American Psychologist
"It is clear that the nature of an infant's attachment to his or her mother as a 1-year-old is related both to earlier interaction with the mother and to various aspects of later development."
7.2. Margaret Mead, from "Some Theoretical Considerations on the Problem of Mother-Child Separation," American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
"[F]iindings in the field of child care may now be rapidly generalized, affecting medical practice, hospital design, and public health practices all over the world. This new capacity for the rapid dissemination and translation into practice of research findings places an extra burden of responsibility for the very careful examination of the theoretical basis of research on those of us concerned in either the research itself or the experimental translation of the research into practice."
CHAPTER 8. Childrearing
8.1. E. E. LeMasters, from "Parenthood as Crisis," Marriage and Family Living
"Viewed in this conceptual system, married couples find the transition to parenthood painful because the arrival of the first child destroys the two-person or pair pattern of group interaction and forces a rapid reorganization of their life into a three-person or triangle group system."
8.2. Diana Baumrind, from "Child Care Practices Anteceding Three Patterns of Preschool Behavior," Genetic Psychology Monographs
"Parents of the most competent and mature boys and girls (Pattern I children) were notably firm, loving, demanding, and understanding. Parents of dysphoric and disaffiliative children (Pattern II children) were firm, punitive, and unaffectionate. Mothers of dependent, immature children (Pattern III children) lacked control and were moderately loving. Fathers of these children were ambivalent and lax."
8.3. Murray A. Straus, from Beating the Devil Out of Them: Corporal Punishment in American Families and Its Effects on Children
"A law prohibiting spanking is unrealistic only because spanking is such an accepted part of American culture. That was also true of smoking. Yet in less than a generation we have made tremendous progress toward eliminating smoking. We can make similar progress toward eliminating spanking by showing parents that spanking is dangerous, that their children will be easier to bring up if they do not spank, and by clearly saying that a child should never, under any circumstances, be spanked."
8.4. Lawrence Kohlberg, from "The Child as a Moral Philosopher," Psychology Today
"We can speak of the child as having his own morality or series of moralities.... Actually, as soon as we talk with children about morality, we find that they have many ways of making judgements which are not `internalized' from the outside, and which do not come in any direct and obvious way from parents, teachers or even peers."
Part 4. Societal Influences on the Family
CHAPTER 9. Family Subcultures
9.1. Robert Staples, from "Changes in Black Family Structure: T
he Conflict Between Family Ideology and Structural Conditions," Journal of Marriage and the Family
"Other than being opposed to unfair discrimination against any group and favoring liberal social and economic policies, blacks often hold very traditional, even conservative, attitudes on other social issues--attitudes that place them in the mainstream of American mores and folkways."
9.2. Judson T. Landis, from "Religiousness, Family Relationships, and Family Values in Protestant, Catholic, and Jewish Families," Marriage and Family Living
"When most of the items denoting family success were related to family religiousness, a positive association was found.... In general the positive association between family religiousness and success in family living held when analyzed by faiths--Protestant, Catholic, Jewish, and no faith."
CHAPTER 10. Work and the Family
10.1. Lois Wladis Hoffman, from "The Decision to Work," in F. Ivan Nye and Lois Wladis Hoffman, eds., The Employed Mother in America
"The decision to be a working mother may be made thoughtfully and deliberately or so subtly that the actors involved--the decision-makers--do not know a decision has been made. Whichever is the case, the decision may be thought of as having two components--motivations and facilitators."
10.2. Patricia Voydanoff and Robert F. Kelly, from "Determinants of Work-Related Family Problems Among Employed Parents," Journal of Marriage and the Family
"The models reveal similarities and differences in the composition and pattern of individual, work, and family demands and resources related to time shortage and income inadequacy."
CHAPTER 11. Violence and Abuse
11.1. Richard J. Gelles, from "Abused Wives: Why Do They Stay?" Journal of Marriage and the Family
"[T]hhe answer to why women remain with their abusive husbands is not nearly as simple as the assumption that underlies the question.... [T]hhe decision to either stay with an assaultive spouse or to seek intervention or dissolution of a marriage is not related solely to the extent or severity of the physical assault."
11.2. John Scanzoni, from "Family Organization and the Probability of Disorganization," Journal of Marriage and the Family
"In order to escape the joint pitfalls of exclusion and over-magnification, we need to discard the evaluative approach, i.e., what is a `good,' `functional,' `succesful,' or `efficient' family.... [I]nn terms of long-range scientific and practical benefits, the largest good will be best served by taking a theoretical approach, viz., by asking significant theoretical questions."
CHAPTER 12. Stress and the Family
12.1. Reuben Hill and Elise Boulding, from Families Under Stress: Adjustment to the Crises of War Separation and Reunion
"Time and time again we find families faced with circumstances that would be termed hardships by any observer, and, yet, because the circumstances are regarded differently by the family, they may not only fail to produce hardship reactions but they may serve as a stimulus to better adjustment."
12.2. Hamilton I. McCubbin and Joan M. Patterson, from "The Family Stress Process: The Double ABCX Model of Adjustment and Adaptation," in Hamilton I. McCubbin, Marvin B. Sussman, and Joan M. Patterson, eds., Social Stress and the Family: Advances and Developments in Family Stress Theory and Research
"A (the stressor event)--interacting with B (the family's crisis meeting resources)--interacting with C (the definition the family makes of the event)--produce X (the crisis).... In the case of the families of the missing in action, many were able to trust the efforts of the United States to do what was best under the circumstances in terms of ending the war, finding and/or returning their spouses and establishing policies to help families."
CHAPTER 13. Divorce and Remarriage
13.1. Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., from "Divorce and the American Family," Annual Review of Sociology
"In a very real sense, then, the causes of the high rate of marital instability are `over determined' by a confluence of cultural, economic, and political change, any one of which might have brought about a significant revision of the institution of marriage. In combination, they have profoundly shaken the commitment to lifelong marriage."
13.2. Judith S. Wallerstein and Joan B. Kelly, from "Children and Divorce: A Review," Social Work
"With reference to the new realities represented by families in which divorce has occurred, it is important to rethink many traditional concepts of child development, psychopathology, and intervention theory and develop theoretical formulations appropriate to newly emerging family structures."
13.3. E. Mavis Hetherington, Martha Cox, and Roger Cox, from "Effects of Divorce on Parents and Children," in Michael E. Lamb, ed., Nontraditional Families: Parenting and Child Development
"[D]iivorce cannot be viewed as an event occurring at a single point in time; it represents an extended transition in the lives of parents and children."
Part 5. Aging Families
CHAPTER 14. Postparental Families
14.1. Michael J. Sporakowski and George A. Hughston, from "Prescriptions for Happy Marriage: Adjustments and Satisfactions of Couples Married for 50 or More Years," The Family Coordinator
"The stages seen as most satisfying [for the marriage] were the childbearing, preschool and aging stages. Satisfactions in the first two related to children and how they added meaning to the marriage. The aging stage meant more time together, travel and activities which they did not previously have sufficient time for."
14.2. Lillian E. Troll, from "Grandparents: The Family Watchdogs," in Timothy H. Brubaker, ed., Family Relationships in Later Life
"If grandparents are really family watchdogs, they would not have to work hard at their mission in highly integrated families, even though they might or might not partake of social interactions. Where family boundaries are permeable and there is little distinction between kin and nonkin, grandparents could share the task of watching that all goes well."
CHAPTER 15. Older Families and Death
15.1. Timothy H. Brubaker, from Later Life Families
"Specifically, `later life families' refers to families who are beyond the child-rearing years and have begun to launch their children. The emphasis is on the remaining members of the family of orientation after the children have initiated their own families of procreation."
15.2. Elisabeth K¿bler-Ross, from On Death and Dying
"If a patient has had enough time and has been given some help in working through the previously described stages, he will reach a stage during which he is neither depressed nor angry about his `fate.'"