Titel: Taking Sides Special Education: Clashing Views on Controversial Issues in Special Education
Herausgegeben von Mary Ann Byrnes
Januar 2002 - kartoniert - 392 Seiten
Introduces students to controversies in special education through paired pro and con articles on such issues as emotional/behavioral problems, ADD/ADHD, inclusion, minority overrepresentation, learning disabilities, use of paraprofessionals, and applications of brain research.
PART 1. Special Education and Society
ISSUE 1. Is Special Education an Illegitimate Profession?
YES: Scot Danforth, from "On What Basis Hope? Modern Progress and Postmodern Possibilities", Mental Retardation
NO: James M. Kauffman, from "Commentary: Today's Special Education and Its Messages for Tomorrow", The Journal of Special Education
Scot Danforth, a member of the School of Education of the University of Missouri-St. Louis, argues that America's trust in science has led to the creation of an array of artificial terms, such as mental retardation, that devalue individuals, have no basis in reality, and blunt the voices of those to whom they are applied. James M. Kauffman, a professor of education at the University of Virginia, cautions readers not to be overly distracted by criticism and asserts that special education is a relatively young profession that uses accepted research practices and self-reflection to generate reliable common knowledge of effective instructional strategies for students with disabilities who were previously excluded from schools.
ISSUE 2. Are Minority Children Overrepresented in Special Education?
YES: James M. Patton, from "The Disproportionate Representation of African Americans in Special Education: Looking Behind the Curtain for Understanding and Solutions", The Journal of Special Education
NO: Donald L. MacMillan and Daniel J. Reschly, from "Overrepresentation of Minority Students: The Case for Greater Specificity or Reconsideration of the Variables Examined", The Journal of Special Education
James M. Patton, a professor at the College of William and Mary, argues that African American children are overrepresented in special education programs and that this overrepresentation needs to be addressed through the involvement of those who are culturally and interculturally competent. Donald L. MacMillan and Daniel J. Reschly, faculty members at the University of California at Riverside and Vanderbilt University, respectively, in examining the issue of overrepresentation, question the accuracy and usefulness of the mechanisms for assessing children and determining specific disabilities.
ISSUE 3. Is Special Education So Expensive Because of the Way It Is Funded?
YES: Teresa S. Jordan, Carolyn A. Weiner, and K. Forbis Jordan, from "The Interaction of Shifting Special Education Policies With State Funding Practices", Journal of Education Finance
NO: Sheldon Berman et al., from "The Rising Costs of Special Education in Massachusetts: Causes and Effects", in Chester E. Finn, Jr., Andrew J. Rotherham, and Charles R. Hokanson, Jr., eds., Rethinking Special Education for a New Century
Teresa S. Jordan, an associate professor at the University of Las Vegas-Nevada; Carolyn A. Weiner, president of Syndactics, Inc.; and K. Forbis Jordan, a professor emeritus at Arizona State University, contend that the number of students identified as disabled is increasing at an excessive rate because of funding systems that encourage overidentification and discourage flexible, creative, inclusive school programming. Sheldon Berman, a school superintendent, and his colleagues maintain that districts have been careful and conservative in identifying children with disabilities but that enrollment and costs are increasing primarily because of the increased numbers of children with more significant disabilities.
ISSUE 4. Are the Doors of For-Profit Charter Schools Open for Students With Disabilities?
YES: Chester E. Finn, Jr., et al., from "The Policy Perils of Charter Schools", Charter Schools in Action Project: Final Report, Part III
NO: Nancy J. Zollers and Arun K. Ramanathan, from "For-Profit Charter Schools and Students With Disabilities: The Sordid Side of the Business of Schooling", Phi Delta Kappan
Chester E. Finn, Jr., et al., educational policy experts and research fellows at the Hudson Institute, are involved in the third part of a multiyear study of charter schools. They affirm that every child is welcome in charter schools but hold that the requirements of IDEA, along with other regulations, often stifle creativity, limit resources, and reduce a school's flexibility. Nancy J. Zollers and Arun K. Ramanathan, a professor and a graduate student, respectively, at Boston College, maintain that the needs of many children with disabilities are swept aside as for-profit charter schools pursue their dual commitments to make money and raise test scores.
ISSUE 5. Does Society Have the Capacity to Prevent Emotional and Behavioral Disabilities?
YES: Hill M. Walker and Jeffrey R. Sprague, from "The Path to School Failure, Delinquency, and Violence: Causal Factors and Some Potential Solutions", Intervention in School and Clinic
NO: James M. Kauffman, from "How We Prevent the Prevention of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders", Exceptional Children
Hill M. Walker and Jeffrey R. Sprague, educational researchers at the University of Oregon's Institute on Violence and Destructive Behavior, describe the path that leads from exposure to risk factors to destructive outcomes. They argue that society must recommit itself to raising children safely, and they advocate strong collaborative arrangements between schools, families, and communities. James M. Kauffman, a professor of education at the University of Virginia, states that experts know what needs to be done to prevent emotional and behavioral disorders but that society as a whole has invented many reasons not to make prevention a reality.
ISSUE 6. Are Schools Limited in Their Ability to Discipline Students With Disabilities?
YES: Ashley Thomas King, from "Exclusionary Discipline and the Forfeiture of Special Education Rights: A Survey", NASSP Bulletin
NO: Russell J. Skiba, from "Special Education and School Discipline: A Precarious Balance", Behavioral Disorders
Ashley Thomas King, bilingual coordinator in the Kwethluk (Alaska) Community Schools, concludes that court cases have hamstrung administrators so that they cannot equitably discipline students, regardless of whether a disability is linked to unacceptable behavior. Russell J. Skiba, an Indiana University faculty member and codirector of the Safe and Responsive Schools Project, writing after the passage of IDEA97, comments on disciplinary options that are available to administrators but questions the wisdom of the current system of school discipline, which he feels is heavily weighted toward exclusionary practices.
ISSUE 7. Will More Federal Oversight Result in Better Special Education?
YES: National Council on Disability, from Back to School on Civil Rights: Advancing the Federal Commitment to Leave No Child Behind
NO: Frederick M. Hess and Frederick J. Brigham, from "How Federal Special Education Policy Affects Schooling in Virginia", in Chester E. Finn, Jr., Andrew J. Rotherham, and Charles R. Hokanson, Jr., eds., Rethinking Special Education for a New Century
The National Council on Disability (NCD), an independent federal agency dedicated to promoting policies, programs, practices, and procedures that guarantee equal opportunity and empowerment for all individuals with disabilities, found that all 50 U.S. states are out of compliance with special education law, a condition that the council argues must be remedied by increased federal attention. Frederick M. Hess, an assistant professor of education and government, and Frederick J. Brigham, an assistant professor of education, both at the University of Virginia, maintain that increased federal monitoring will only deepen the separation between general and special education, drawing resources away from true educational excellence for all.
ISSUE 8. Should One-on-One Nursing Care Be Part of Special Education?
YES: John Paul Stevens, from Majority Opinion, Cedar Rapids Community School District v. Garret F., U.S. Supreme Court
NO: Clarence Thomas, from Dissenting Opinion, Cedar Rapids Community School District v. Garret F., U.S. Supreme Court
U.S. Supreme Court justice John Paul Stevens, writing for the majority of the Court, affirms the "bright line test", establishing that school districts are required by IDEA to provide one-on-one nursing services and any other health-related services that can be delivered by individuals other than a licensed physician. U.S. Supreme Court justice Clarence Thomas, representing the dissenting minority opinion, asserts that continuous one-on-one nursing services for disabled children are indeed medical and, as such, beyond the scope of congressional intent in IDEA. He concludes that such services are not the responsibility of special education programs within school districts.
PART 2. Inclusion
ISSUE 9. Does Inclusion Work?
YES: Dorothy Kerzner Lipsky and Alan Gartner, from "Taking Inclusion Into the Future", Educational Leadership
NO: Daniel P. Hallahan, from "We Need More Intensive Instruction", LD Online, http://www.ldonline.org/first_person/hallahan.html
Dorothy Kerzner Lipsky, director of the National Center on Educational Restructuring and Inclusion at the City University of New York, and professor of educational psychology Alan Gartner emphasize that IDEA97 supports inclusion as the best way to educate students with disabilities and discuss the ingredients that contribute to successful inclusionary practices. Daniel P. Hallahan, a professor of education at the University of Virginia in Charlottesville, fears that students with disabilities will lose access to necessary, specially designed instruction in the inclusionary rush to return them to the very classrooms in which they experienced failure.
ISSUE 10. Does Full Inclusion Deliver a Good Education?
YES: Susan Shapiro-Barnard et al., from Petroglyphs: The Writing on the Wall
NO: Gary M. Chesley an
d Paul D. Calaluce, Jr., from "The Deception of Inclusion", Mental Retardation
Susan Shapiro-Barnard and her colleagues in the Institute on Disability at the University of New Hampshire affirm the positive outcomes of full inclusion at the high school level for students with significant cognitive disabilities. Public school administrators Gary M. Chesley and Paul D. Calaluce, Jr., express their concern that full inclusion of students with significant cognitive disabilities does not provide appropriate preparation for successful life following school.
ISSUE 11. Are Residential Schools the Least Restrictive Environment for Deaf Children?
YES: Harlan Lane, Robert Hoffmeister, and Ben Bahan, from A Journey Into the Deaf-World
NO: Tom Bertling, from A Child Sacrificed to the Deaf Culture
Harlan Lane, a faculty member at Northeastern University; Robert Hoffmeister, director of the Deaf Studies Program at Boston University; and Ben Bahan, a deaf scholar in American Sign Language linguistics, value residential schools as rich cultural resources that enable Deaf children to participate fully in the educational experience. Tom Bertling, who acquired a severe hearing loss at age 5 and attended a residential school for the deaf after third grade, favors the use of sign language in social situations but views residential schools as segregated enclaves designed to preserve the Deaf culture rather than to develop adults who can contribute fully to society.
ISSUE 12. Should Students With Disabilities Be Exempt From Standards-Based Curricula?
YES: Rex Knowles and Trudy Knowles, from "Accountability for What?" Phi Delta Kappan
NO: Jerry Jesness, from "You Have Your Teacher's Permission to Be Ignorant", Education Week
Rex Knowles, a retired college professor, and Trudy Knowles, an assistant professor of elementary education, argue that federal mandates for all students to master the same curriculum fail to consider students' individual differences and needs. Jerry Jesness, a special education teacher, stresses that students who complete school without learning the basics will be ill-equipped to succeed as adults and that any program that avoids teaching these essentials fails to address the long-term needs of students.
ISSUE 13. Are the Least Trained Teaching Our Most Needy Children?
YES: Michael F. Giangreco et al., from "Helping or Hovering? Effects of Instructional Assistant Proximity on Students With Disabilities", Exceptional Children
NO: Susan Unok Marks, Carl Schrader, and Mark Levine, from "Paraeducator Experiences in Inclusive Settings: Helping, Hovering, or Holding Their Own?" Exceptional Children
Michael F. Giangreco, a research associate professor specializing in inclusive education, and his colleagues assert that untrained teacher assistants spend too much time closely attached to individual students, often hindering the involvement of certified teachers and nondisabled peers. Susan Unok Marks, Carl Schrader, and Mark Levine, of the Behavioral Counseling and Research Center in San Rafael, California, find that professionally trained classroom teachers are often less prepared than some assistants to work with children in inclusive settings and that, unprepared to supervise assistants, they use this lack of knowledge to avoid teaching children with disabilities.
PART 3. Issues About Disabilities
ISSUE 14. Are Learning Disabilities a Myth?
YES: G. E. Zuriff, from "The Myths of Learning Disabilities: The Social Construction of a Disorder", Public Affairs Quarterly
NO: Michael M. Gerber, from "An Appreciation of Learning Disabilities: The Value of Blue-Green Algae", Exceptionality
G. E. Zuriff, a professor of psychology at Wheaton College, challenges the differentiation between children who are diagnosed as learning disabled and those who are found to be slow learners, asserting that all children struggling in school deserve assistance. He questions the tests and assessment strategies that are used to determine the diagnosis of learning disabilities (LD), holding that LD is based on false comparisons to individuals with brain damage. Michael M. Gerber, a professor in the Graduate School of Education at the University of California, Santa Barbara, acknowledges that all the answers about LD have not yet been found, but he maintains that much has been learned in the process of exploring the unique learning characteristics of individuals who learn some subjects with ease and struggle mightily over others.
ISSUE 15. Is Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Real?
YES: Edward M. Hallowell, from "What I've Learned From ADD", Psychology Today
NO: Thomas Armstrong, from "ADD: Does It Really Exist?" Phi Delta Kappan
Edward M. Hallowell, director of a clinic that specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), discusses how he utilized his own diagnosis of ADHD to change the direction of his life and those of his clients, becoming more knowledgeable about brain functioning and implementing strategies that enhance daily life. Thomas Armstrong, an author and speaker specializing in learning and human development, is troubled by the fact that schools, doctors, and society have embraced ADHD as a real disorder. He raises questions about the reality of ADHD, the soundness of the diagnostic tools, and the motivation that leads society to create and believe in ADHD.
ISSUE 16. Are We Turning Too Easily to Medication to Address the Needs of Our Children?
YES: Lawrence H. Diller, from "The Run on Ritalin: Attention Deficit Disorder and Stimulant Treatment in the 1990s", Hastings Center Report
NO: Larry S. Goldman et al., from "Diagnosis and Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adolescents", JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association
Lawrence H. Diller, a pediatrician and family therapist, asserts that the use of stimulants on children has risen to epidemic proportions, occasioned by competitive social pressures for ever more effective functioning in school and at work. Larry S. Goldman, a faculty member of the Pritzker School of Medicine at the University of Chicago, and his colleagues review 20 years of medical literature regarding the diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and the use of stimulants. They conclude that the condition is not being overdiagnosed or misdiagnosed and that medications are not being overprescribed or overused.
ISSUE 17. Should Parents Choose Cochlear Implants for Their Deaf Children?
YES: Thomas Balkany, Annelle V. Hodges, and Kenneth W. Goodman, from "Cochlear Implants for Young Children: Ethical Issues", in Warren Estabrooks, ed., Cochlear Implants for Kids
NO: National Association of the Deaf, from "NAD Position Statement on Cochlear Implants", http://www.nad.org/infocenter/newsroom/positions/CochlearImplants.html
Thomas Balkany, Annelle V. Hodges, and Kenneth W. Goodman, of the University of Miami, argue that the Deaf community actively works to dissuade families from choosing cochlear implants for their children, preferring to have the decision made by Deaf individuals as a way to perpetuate the existence of a separate culture. The authors maintain that parents must decide whether or not their children receive cochlear implants, based on each child's best interest. The National Association of the Deaf (NAD), an education and advocacy organization committed to supporting the deaf and the hard of hearing, uses its updated position paper on cochlear implants to express concern that medical professionals will dissuade parents from considering the positive benefits of the Deaf community and choose, instead, a medical procedure that is not yet proven.
ISSUE 18. Do Students With Disabilities Benefit From Participating in High-Stakes Testing?
YES: Martha L. Thurlow and David R. Johnson, from "High-Stakes Testing of Students With Disabilities", Journal of Teacher Education
NO: Pixie J. Holbrook, from "When Bad Things Happen to Good Children: A Special Educator's Views of MCAS", Phi Delta Kappan
Martha L. Thurlow, director of the National Center on Educational Outcomes, and David R. Johnson, director of the Institute on Community Integration, both at the University of Minnesota, assert that high-stakes testing may hold many benefits for students with disabilities, especially if the tests are carefully designed and implemented. Pixie J. Holbrook, a special education teacher and consultant, maintains that high-stakes testing marks children with disabilities as worthless failures, ignores their accomplishments and positive attributes, and seriously limits their range of possibilities in adult life.