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Rock-forming Minerals in Thin Section

Sprache: Englisch.
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Identificationof rock-forming minerals in thin section is a key skill needed by all earth science students and practising geologists. This translation of the completely revised and updated German second edition (by Leonore Hoke, Institute of Geolo … weiterlesen
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Produktdetails

Titel: Rock-forming Minerals in Thin Section
Autor/en: Hans Pichler, Cornelia Schmitt-Riegraf

ISBN: 0412644606
EAN: 9780412644603
Sprache: Englisch.
Springer Netherlands

31. Mai 1997 - gebunden - 220 Seiten

Beschreibung

Identificationof rock-forming minerals in thin section is a key skill needed by all earth science students and practising geologists. This translation of the completely revised and updated German second edition (by Leonore Hoke, Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences, New Zealand) provides a comprehensive guide to identifying 140 of the most important rock-forming mineral species. The book is divided into three main parts. Part A is a practical guide to the fundamentals of crystal optics, polarization microscopy and the practical use of microscopes. Part B gives a detailed description of the characteristic optical features, special features, and the paragenesis of the most common rock-forming minerals. This well-illustrated part is divided into opaque minerals, isotropic, uniaxial and optical biaxial mineral groups. Part C contains identification tables for the minerals and diagrams showing the international classification of magmatic rocks, as well as a colour plate section showing crystal forms of minerals. The book will provide an invaluable guide to all undergraduate earth scientists, as well as to professional geologists requiring an overview of mineral identification in thin section.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

A Optical Crystallography.- 1 The polarizing microscope.- 1.1 Microscope components and their function.- 1.2 Accessory equipment.- 1.3 Adjustment of the microscope.- 1.3.1 Centring the condensing lens.- 1.3.2 Centring the objective.- 2 Orthoscopic observations.- 2.1 Observations with one polarizer.- 2.1.1 Light impervious (opaque) minerals and substances.- 2.1.2 Transparent minerals and substances.- 2.1.2.1 Characteristic crystal shapes.- 2.1.2.2 Cleavage.- 2.1.2.3 Colour and pleochroism.- 2.1.2.4 Refractive index: relief, chagrin, and the Becke line.- 2.2 Observations under crossed polars.- 2.2.1 Passage of light through isotropic media.- 2.2.2 Passage of light through anisotropic media.- 2.2.2.1 Birefringence and polarization.- 2.2.2.2 The indicatrix model.- 2.2.2.3 Optical character of elongation.- 2.2.2.4 Parallel, symmetric and oblique extinction.- 2.2.2.5 Twinning.- 3 Observations under conoscopic light.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Conoscopic examination of optically uniaxial crystals.- 3.2.1 Conoscopic images of uniaxial crystals in different orientations.- 3.2.2 Determination of the optical character of uniaxial crystals.- 3.3 Determination of the optical character of biaxial minerals in the conoscopic light path.- 3.3.1 Conoscopic images of biaxial minerals in different orientations.- 3.3.2 Identification of the optical character of biaxial crystals.- 3.3.3 Estimation of the optic axial angle 2V.- 3.3.4 Determination of optic axial angles 2V in oblique section.- Summary 1: Mineral identification with the polarizing microscope.- Summary 2: Protocol of mineral identification in thin section.- B Optical Mineralogy.- 1 Opaque minerals and substances.- 1.1 Magnetite.- 1.2 Ilmenite.- 1.3 Hematite.- 1.4 Pyrite.- 1.5 Pyrrhotite.- 1.6 Graphite.- 1.7 Carbonaceous substances.- 2 Optically isotropic (also pseudocubic) minerals and amorphous substances.- 2.1 Perovskite.- 2.2 Spinel group.- 2.3 Pyrochlore and koppite.- 2.4 Garnet group.- 2.4.1 Pyrope.- 2.4.2 Almandine.- 2.4.3 Grossularite.- 2.4.4 Melanite.- 2.5 Leucite.- 2.6 Sodalite group.- 2.7 Analcite.- 2.8 Cristobalite.- 2.9 Fluorite.- 2.10 Amorphous minerals, glass and cryptocrystalline material.- 2.10.1 Limonite.- 2.10.2 Opal.- 2.10.3 Rock-glass.- 3 Optically uniaxial minerals.- 3.1 Minerals which are optically uniaxial positive.- 3.1.1 Rutile.- 3.1.2 Cassiterite.- 3.1.3 Zircon.- 3.1.4 Xenotime.- 3.1.5 Melilite group.- 3.1.6 SiO2 group.- 3.1.6.1 Quartz.- 3.1.6.2 Chalcedony.- 3.1.6.3 Tridymite.- 3.1.7 Chabazite.- 3.2 Minerals with uniaxial negative character.- 3.2.1 Anatase.- 3.2.2 Trigonal carbonate group.- 3.2.2.1 Calcite.- 3.2.2.2 Dolomite.- 3.2.2.3 Magnesite.- 3.2.2.4 Siderite.- 3.2.3 Corundum.- 3.2.4 Vesuvianite.- 3.2.5 Tourmaline.- 3.2.6 Apatite.- 3.2.7 Beryl.- 3.2.8 Nepheline.- 3.2.9 Scapolite group.- 3.2.10 Apophyllite.- 3.2.11 Cancrinite.- 4 Biaxial crystals.- 4.1 Olivine group.- 4.2 Pyroxene group.- 4.2.1 Orthopyroxene group: enstatite, bronzite, hypersthene.- 4.2.2 Clinopyroxenes.- 4.2.2.1 Diopside group.- 4.2.2.2 Augite group.- 4.2.2.3 Titanaugite.- 4.2.2.4 Pigeonite.- 4.2.2.5 Aegirine-augite series.- 4.2.2.6 Jadeite.- 4.2.2.7 Omphacite.- Determination of the maximum extinction angle for pyroxenes and amphiboles.- 4.3 Amphibole group.- 4.3.1 Actinolite group.- 4.3.2 Green ('common') hornblende.- 4.3.3 Brown hornblende.- 4.3.4 Glaucophane and crossite.- 4.3.5 Arfvedsonite and riebeckite.- 4.4 Mica group.- 4.4.1 Muscovite.- 4.4.2 Phengite.- 4.4.3 Lithionite series.- 4.4.3.1 Lepidolite.- 4.4.3.2 Zinnwaldite.- 4.4.4 Biotite series.- 4.4.4.1 Phlogopite.- 4.4.4.2 Biotite s.s..- 4.4.5 Oxybiotite.- 4.4.6 Titanbiotite.- 4.5 Stilpnomelane.- 4.6 Glauconite and celadonite.- 4.7 Talc.- 4.8 Chlorite group.- 4.8.1 Orthochlorite.- 4.8.2 Leptochlorite.- 4.9 Serpentine group.- 4.9.1 Antigorite.- 4.9.2 Chrysotile.- 4.10 Feldspar family.- 4.10.1 Alkali feldspars.- 4.10.1.1 Sanidine.- 4.10.1.2 Orthoclase.- 4.10.1.3 Anorthoclase.- 4.10.1.4 Microcline.- 4.10.2 Plagioclase series.- 4.11 Zeolite family.- 4.11.1 Fibrous zeolites.- 4.11.1.1 Natrolite.- 4.11.1.2 Mesolite.- 4.11.1.3 Thomsonite.- 4.11.1.4 Scolecite.- 4.11.1.5 Mordenite.- 4.11.1.6 Laumontite.- 4.11.2 Flaky zeolites.- 4.11.2.1 Heulandite.- 4.11.2.2 Stilbite.- 4.11.2.3 Epistilbite.- 4.11.3 Cubic zeolites.- 4.11.3.1 Phillipsite.- 4.11.3.2 Harmotome.- 4.12 Aenigmatite (cossyrite).- 4.13 Sphene (titanite).- 4.14 Topaz.- 4.15 Cordierite.- 4.16 Al2SiO5 group.- 4.16.1 Andalusite.- 4.16.2 Sillimanite.- 4.16.3 Kyanite.- 4.17 Staurolite.- 4.18 Wollastonite.- 4.19 Chloritoid.- 4.20 Epidote zoisite group.- 4.20.1 Zoisite.- 4.20.2 Epidote.- 4.20.3 Clinozoisite.- 4.20.4 Orthite (allanite).- 4.21 Pumpellyite.- 4.22 Lawsonite.- 4.23 Anhydrite.- 4.24 Gypsum.- 4.25 Aragonite.- 4.26 Barite.- 4.27 Goethite.- 4.28 Prehnite.- C Appendices.- 1 Tables for the microscopic identification of rock-forming minerals.- 2 Diagrams for the classification of magmatic rocks.- 3 Diagrams of mineral and rock structures.
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