Titel: Philosophy and Technology
'Boston Studies in the Philosophy and History of Science'.
Herausgegeben von P. T. Durbin, F. Rapp
30. September 1983 - gebunden - 362 Seiten
Only recently has the phenomenon of technology become an object of in terest for philosophers. The first attempts at a philosophy of technology date back scarcely a hundred years - a span of time extremely short when com pared with the antiquity of philosophical reflections on nature, science, and society. Over that hundred-year span, speculative, critical, and empiricist approaches of various sorts have been put forward. Nevertheless, even now there remains a broad gap between the importance of technology in the real world and the sparse number of philosophical works dedicated to the under standing of modern technology. As a result of the complex structure of modern technology, it can be dealt with in very different ways. These range from metaphysical exposition to efforts aimed at political consensus. Quite naturally, within such a broad range, certain national accents can be discovered-; they are shaped by a com mon language, accepted philosophical traditions, and concrete problems requiring consideration. Even so, the worldwide impact of technology, its penetration into all spheres of individual, social, and cultural life, together with the urgency of the problems raised in this context - all these demand a joint philosophical discussion that transcends the barriers of language and cultural differences. The papers printed here are intended to exemplify such an effort at culture-transcending philosophical discussion.
Analytical Table of Contents.- Introduction: Some Questions for Philosophy of Technology.- Introduction: Some Questions for Philosophy of Technology.- [i.] Philosophy of Science.- [ii.] General Philosophy.- [iii.] Some Lessons for Philosophy of Technology.- I / Can Technological Development Be Regulated?.- Can Government Regulate Technology?.- [i. Ineffective Regulative Legislation].- [ii. Defects in Regulatory System].- [iii. Possible Improvements].- Social Implications of Recent Technological Innovations.- [i. Species-Wide Effects: Continuity or Discontinuity?].- [ii. World-Wide Factors].- [iii. World-Wide Failures].- [iv. Recent Scientific/Technological Developments as World-Wide Problems].- [v. Threats to Culture and Democracy from Technological Elites].- [vi. Conclusion: Science and Technology Cannot Be Neutral].- Technology and Human Rights.- [i. Technology and Global Civilization].- [ii. Human Rights and Technology].- [iii. Recognition by Scientists and Engineers].- [iv. Human Rights Are Natural].- [v. Realization of Freedom through Technology if Directed by Human Rights].- [vi. Abstract Formulation Inadequate; Social Implementation].- [vii. Minimum Moral Obligation of Scientists and Engineers].- Technology Assessment, Facts and Values.
- 1. Introduction.
- 2. Fact and Value: Ontology.
- 3. Fact and Falsehood: Epistemology.
- 4. From Ontology to Epistemology.
- 5. From Ontology to Methodology.
- 6. Theories of Value.
- 7. Rational Decision-Making.
- 8. Conclusion.- A Critique of Technological Determinism.
- 1. The Technopolitical Challenge.
- 2. The Basic Problem.
- 3. Technological Determinism and Its Variants.
- 4. A Systems-Theoretical Solution of the Problem.
- 5. Some Tentative Conclusions.- Techne and Politeia: The Technical Constitution of Society.- [i. Historical Link between Techn? and Political Theory: Art of Statecraft].- [ii. Industrial Revolution as Form of Institutionalization: Freedom through Abundance].- [iii. De Facto Constitution of Sociotechnical Order].- [iv. Attempts to Regulate Technology].- [v. Efforts Do Not Set Limits for Technological Change].- [vi. No Consideration of Ends].- [vii. Example: Introduction of Photovoltaic Systems].- [viii. Conclusion: Modern Political Theory Must Criticize "Technical Constitution" of Society].- II / Technology Assessment.- Technoaxiology: Appropriate Norms for Technology Assessment.
- 1. Introduction.
- 2. Recent Assessments of Western Industrial Technology.
- 3. The Evaluative Neutrality of TA.
- 4. Uncriticized Assumptions of TA.
- 5. Implications for Philosophy of Technology.
- 6. Conclusion.- Comment: What Is Alternative Technology? A Reply to Professor Stanley Carpenter.- [i. Dissatisfaction with Technology:.- (1) Harms Associated with Technological Progress;.- (2) Dangers of Misuse of Technology;.- (3) Structure of Technology].- [ii. No Need for Alternative Technology].- The Prospects for Technology Assessment.- [i. Types of TA: Pretext, Neutral Decision Tool, Prescriptive-Categorical].- [ii. Problem with Pretext TA].- [iii. Questions about Decision-Making TA].- [iv. Rejection of Prescriptive-Categorical TA].- [v. Conclusion: TA Remains Indispensable].- Technology Assessment and the Problem of Quantification.
- 1. Introduction.
- 2. Arguments against Quantification.
- 3. Arguments in favor of Quantification.
- 4. Technology Assessments and the Failure to Quantify.
- 5. Conclusion.- Forecast, Value, and the Recent Phenomenon of Non-Acceptance: The Limits of a Philosophy of Technology Assessment.
- 1. Technology Assessment or "Risk Analysis"?.
- 2. The Problem of Forecasting.
- 3. The Philosophy of History and Evolution.
- 4. The End of the Modern Age of Enlightenment.
- 5. Values, Norms, and the Justification of Norms.
- 6. "Defensive Ethics" and TA.- III / Responsibilities Toward Nature.- The Viability of Environmental Ethics.- [i. Objections: Recognizing Rights of the Environment Philosophically Confused and Impractical].- [ii. The Impracticality Objection] 188.- [iii. "Rights of Nature Makes No Sense" Refuted].- [iv. Conclusion: Good Instrumental Reasons for Environment as End-in-Itself].- Notes on Extended Responsibility and Increased Technological Power.- [i. Ethical Problems of Technological Progress].- [ii. A Response to the Challenge (Jonas)].- [iii. Extension of Social Responsibility to the Future of All of Nature].- [iv. Consequences for Ethics].- [v.] Summary and Applications.- What Sort of Technology Permits the Language of Nature? Conditions for Controlling Nature-Domination Constitutionally.
- 1. Absolutism in Man's Relation to Nature.
- 2. Laws of Nature and Laws of Justice; Humanity beyond Mankind.
- 3. Holistic Principles for a Humane Domination of Nature.- IV / Metaphysical and Historical Issues.- The Historical-Ontological Priority of Technology over Science.
- I. Introduction.
- II. The Standard Theory.
- III. A Materialist Theory: Heidegger and White.
- IV. The Historical-Ontological Priority of Technology.
- V. Conclusion.- The Origins of Modern Technology in Millenarianism.
- I. Why the Philosophy and Theology of History Are Necessary for the Philosophy of Technology.
- II. A Current Example of the Use of Technology to Achieve Millenarian Goals.
- III. Christianity and Millenarianism.
- IV. Millenarianism and Scientific-Technical-Industrial-Economic Control of Nature.
- V. Criticism of Millenarianism.- The Religious and Political Origins of Modern Technology.- [i.] Religious Origins I [Weber].- [ii.] Political Origins I [Strauss].- [iii.] Religious Origins II [White].- [iv.] Political Origins II [Mitcham].- From the Phenomenon to the Event of Technology (A Dialectical Approach to Heidegger's Phenomenology).
- I. Inhuman Technology: Machines.
- II. Humane Technology: Cybernetic Art.
- III. Human Being: The Event of Technology.- Pragmatism, Transcendental Arguments, and the Technological.
- I. [Heidegger Criticized by Contrast with Marx (But Also Correct: Particular Assessments of Technology Presuppose a General Assessment)].
- II. [Survey of Contemporary Philosophy: General Convergence on Praxis and the Transcendental].
- III. [Theses: Transcendental Discoveries Possible within the Praxical-Technological; Repudiations of Philosophy (Rorty) or Non-Relativity (Feyerabend, Kuhn) Are Premature].- V / Directions for Philosophy of Technology.- The Cultural Character of Technology.- (1) [Culture Defined; Framework of Horizon Structures].- (2) [Phenomenological Method].- (3) [Technology as Cultural Phenomenon].- (4) ["Third-World Problem"].- The Import of Social, Political, and Anthropological Considerations in an Adequate Philosophy of Technology.
- I. [Theses: Instrumental vs. Dialectical Reason; Modern Technology as Pervasive, But a Necessary Development].
- II. [Presuppositions and Elaborations].
- III. [Anthropology of Basic Needs Required].- Philosophy of Technology: Problems of a Philosophical Discipline.- [i. Why Philosophy of Technology is Undeveloped].- [ii. Complex Problematic of Philosophy of Technology].- [iii. Comparison of Technology/Technological Science with Nature/Natural Science].- [iv. Comparison of Natural Science with Technology].- [v. Technology and the Economy, Ethics, Politics, and Society; Matrix for Analysis].- [vi. Proposal: Need for Philosophical But Historically-Oriented Philosophy of Technology].- Name Index.
`...only in the historical context can anything be truly understood. Placed within its own historical context, Philosophy and Technology provides an excellent introduction to an emerging field of academic inquiry.'
Technology and Culture