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Somatic Cell Genetics of Woody Plants

Proceedings of the IUFRO Working Party S2. 04-07 Somatic Cell Genetics, held in Grosshansdorf, Federal Republic of…
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Proceedings of the IUFRO Working Party S2. 04-07 Somatic Cell Genetics, held in Grosshansdorf, FRG, August 10-13, 1987
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Somatic Cell Genetics of Woody Plants als Buch

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Titel: Somatic Cell Genetics of Woody Plants

ISBN: 9024737281
EAN: 9789024737284
Proceedings of the IUFRO Working Party S2. 04-07 Somatic Cell Genetics, held in Grosshansdorf, Federal Republic of Germany, August 10-13, 1987.
'Forestry Sciences'.
Auflage 1988.
Book.
Sprache: Englisch.
Herausgegeben von M. R. Ahuja
Springer Netherlands

31. Juli 1988 - gebunden - 252 Seiten

Beschreibung

Most forest tree species were considered recalcitrant a decade ago, but now with the improved in vitro techniques some progress has been made towards culture-of tree species. Micro­ propagation has been achieved from the juvenile tissues of a number of forest tree species. On the other hand, tissues from most mature trees are still very difficult to grow and differen­ tiate in vitro. Nevertheless, there has been slow but steady progress in the application of tissue culture technology for culture of tissues, organs, cells and protoplasts of tree species. As compared to most agricultural crops, and herbaceous plant species, trees are a different lot. They have long gene­ ration cycles. They are highly heterozygous and have a large reservoir of genetic variability. Because of this genetic variability, their response in vitro is also variable. On a single medium, the response of tissues from different trees (genotypes) of a single species may be quite different: some responding by induction of growth and differentiation, while others showing minimal or no growth at all. That makes the somatic cell genetics of woody plants somewhat difficult, but at the same time interesting.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Somatic Embryogenesis.- Development and Characterization of in Vitro Embryogenic Systems in Conifers.- 1. Abstract.- 2. Introduction.- 3. Initiation of Embryogenic Callus in Conifers.- 3.1. Picea.- 3.1.1. Origin of embryogenic callus.- 3.1.2. Optimum initiation window.- 3.1.3. Quantification of embryogenic capacity.- 3.2. Pinus.- 3.2.1. Pond pine.- 3.2.2. Loblolly pine.- 3.2.3. White pine.- 3.3. Comparison of in vitro embryogenesis in Pinus and Picea.- 4. Biochemical Characterization of Embryogenic Conifer Callus.- 5. Ultrastructural Characterization of Embryogenic Conifer Callus.- 6. Conifer Embryogenic Suspension Culture.- 7. Development of Conifer Somatic Embryos to Plants.- 8. Comparison of in vivo and in vitro Conifer Embryogenesis.- 9. Summary.- Studies on Embryogenesis of Woody Plants in China.- 0. Abstract.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Factors Affecting Embryoid Formation.- 2.1. Pretreatment.- 2.2. Expiant.- 2.3. Media and its supplements.- 2.4. Environmental factors.- 3. Origin of Embryoids.- 3.1. Embryoids from pollen.- 3.2. Embryoids from somatic tissue.- 4. Abnormal Embryoids and Measures to Prevent their Formation.- 4.1. Abnormal embryoid types.- 4.1.1. Abnormal globular, heart, torpedo, and rod shaped.- 4.1.2. Embryoids from multiple meristems.- 4.1.3. Embryoids with abnormal root and shoot poles.- 4.1.4. Embryoids with abnormal cotyledons.- 4.1.5. Vitreous embryoids.- 4.2. Measures to prevent formation of abnormal embryoids.- 4.2.1. Embryoid maturation.- 4.2.2. Hormone adjustments.- 4.2.3. Removal of toxins.- 4.2.4. Removal of abnormal embryoids from culture.- Morphological Definition of Phenocritical Period for Initiation of Haploid Embryogenic Tissue from Explants of Larix Decidua.- Abstract.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Procedure.- 2.1. Materials and methods.- 2.1.1. Description of source material.- 2.1.2. Establishment of morphological markers.- 2.1.3. Application of morphological markers.- 2.1.4. Degree-days.- 2.1.5. Megagametophyte position.- 2.1.6. Statistics.- 2.1.7. Induction.- 3. Results.- 3.1.1. Morphological markers of Larix deciduas.- 3.1.2. Predictive value of morphological markers for Larix.- 3.1.3. Predictive value of morphological markers of Larix decidua on indueibility of Picea glauca.- 3.1.4. Megagametophyte position in Larix deciduas.- 4. Discussion.- Production of Haploid Plantlets in Cultures of Unpolinated Ovules of Hevea Brasiliensis Muell. ARG.- 0. Abstract.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Materials and Methods.- 2.1. Expiant.- 2.2. Surface sterlization.- 2.3. Excision and inoculation.- 2.4. Culture media.- 2.4.1. Dedifferentiation medium.- 2.4.2. Differentiation medium.- 2.4.3. Plant forming medium.- 2.4.4. Environmental factors.- 2.5. Cytological procedures.- 3. Results.- 4. Discussion.- Somatic Embryogenesis in Tissue Cultures of Walnut (Juglans Nigra, J. Major and Hybrids J. Nigra X J. Regia).- Abstract.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Material and Methods.- 3. Results and Discussion.- In Vitro Embryogenic Callus Formation in Chimonanthus.- Plant Regeneration of Horse Chestnut by in Vitro Culture.- Genetic Transformation.- A Model System for Gene Transfer in Conifers: European Larch and Agrobacterium.- 1. Abstract.- 2. Introduction.- 3. Micropropagation.- 4. Gene Transfer.- 5. Potential for Genetic Improvement.- Regeneration and Transformation of Apple Plants Using Wild-Type and Engineered Plasmids in Agrobacterium Spp..- Abstract.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Procedure.- 2.1. Materials and methods.- 2.1.1. Micropropagation and regeneration.- 2.1.2. Transformation procedures.- 2.2. Statistical treatments.- 3. Results and Discussion.- 3.1. Regeneration from complex expiants - somaclonal variation.- 3.2. Transformation with Agrobacterium spp..- 3.2.1. Agrobacterium tumefaciens - wild type plasmids.- 3.2.2. Agrobacterium tumefaciens - disarmed engineered plasmids - binary vectors.- 3.2.3. Agrobacterium rhizogenes co-culture.- 3.2.4. Shoot inoculation.- Expression of an Herbicide Tolerance Gene in Young Plants of a Transgenic Hybrid Poplar Clone.- Abstract.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Materials and Methods.- 2.1. Genetic transformation.- 2.2. In vitro propagation.- 2.3. Roundup spray tests.- 2.4. Agrbacterium assay.- 3. Results.- 3.1. Roundup spray tests.- 3.2. Agrobacterium assay.- 4. Discussion.- Transformation of Hybrid Populus Tremula X P. Alba by Agrobacterium Tumefaciens.- Gene Transfer in Woody Plants: Perspectives and Limitations.- 0. Abstract.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Hybridization.- 2.1. Backcross.- 3. Fusion of Protoplasts.- 4. Agrobacterium Plasmid-Vector System.- 4.1. Biology.- 4.1.1. The Ti plasmid.- 4.1.2. The genes in T-DNA.- 4.1.3. The virulence region.- 4.1.4. The T-DNA borders.- 4.2. Vectors for gene transfer.- 4.2.1. Selectable marker genes.- 5. Transformation in Tree Species.- 5.1. Tumor formation and growth autonomy.- 5.2. Gene transfer with selectable markers.- 6. Transfer of Foreign Genes Without Agrobacterium Mediation.- 6.1. The delivery system.- 6.2. Direct gene transfer into protoplasts.- 6.3. Direct injection of DNA.- 6.3.1. Microinjection.- 6.3.2. Injection into plants.- 7. Genetics of Transgenic Plants.- 7.1. Inheritance of selectable markers.- 7.2. Somatoclonal variation.- 8. Perspectives and Limitations.- Genetic Control of Morphogenesis.- Somatic Cell Genetic Research in Forestry: Integration of Cytogenetics, Tissue Culture, and Molecular Genetics.- Abstract.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Review.- 2.1. Somatic cell hybridization.- 2.2. Chromosome- and microcell-mediated gene transfer.- 2.3. Flow cytogenetics.- 3. Discussion.- 3.1. Gene mapping.- 3.1.1. Biochemical markers and genetic probes.- 3.1.2. Restriction fragment, length polymorphisms (RFLP).- 3.1.3. Saturated linkage maps.- 3.2. Somatic cell genetics and tree improvement.- 4. Concluding Remarks.- Differential Norms of Reaction in Tissue Culture of Birch.- Abstract.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Material.- 3. Methods.- 4. Characters.- 5. Model.- 6. Results.- 7. Discussion.- Determination of Plantlet Regeneration Capacity of Selected Aspen Clones in Vitro.- 0. Abstract.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Material and Methods.- 2.1. Culture of bud meristems.- 2.2. Statistical analysis.- 3. Results.- 3.1. Response of MS to BA-treatments.- 3.2. Response of MS to families and BA-treatments.- 3.3. Correlation of MS induction with other morphological and physiological traits.- 4. Discussion.- 4.1. Optimal BA concentration for MS induction.- 4.2. Differential response of families to BA treatments.- 4.3. Correlation between MS and other traits.- 4.4. Aging and micropropagation.- 4.5. Approval and release of clones into practice.- Suspension Culture of Dipterocarp Shorea Roxburghii G. Don..- Abstract.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Materials and Methods.- 2.1. Cell culture.- 2.2. Stock culture.- 2.3. Growth curves.- 2.4. Plating on solid medium.- 2.5. Observations.- 3. Results and Discussion.- 3.1 Establishment and growth of suspension cultures.- 3.2. Plating suspension on agar medium.- 3.3. Observation on cells in suspension.- 4. Conclusions.- Isozyme Analysis of Micropropagated Betula Pendula Roth..- 1. Introduction.- 2. Procedure.- 2.1. Materials and methods.- 3. Results.- 4. Discussion.- Tissue Culture Studies of Mahogany Tree, Sweitenia.- 1. Abstract.- 2. Introduction.- 3. Materials and Methods.- 3.1. Seed material.- 3.2. Methods.- 3.2.1. Callus initiation.- 3.2.2. Culture media.- 3.2.3. Micropropagation.- 4. Results.- 4.1. General growth response.- 4.2. Response of cotyledons.- 4.3. Response of stem segments and leaf tissue.- 4.4. Progress in micropropagation.- 5. Conclusions and Prospects.- Attempts to Micropropagate Mature Larix Decidua Mill..- Abstract.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Materials and Methods.- 2.1. Collection and storage.- 2.1.1. Female cones at around the time of meiosis.- 2.1.2. Vegetative and sexual buds.- 2.2. Surface sterlization and excision.- 2.2.1. Female cones at about the time of meiosis.- 2.2.2. Vegetative and sexual buds.- 2.3. Media and culture conditions.- 3. Results.- 3.1. Description of shoot and root development.- 3.1.1. Female cones at about the time of meiosis.- 3.1.2. Vegetative and sexual buds.- 3.2. The effect of some experimental variables.- 3.2.1. Recording of data.- 3.2.2. Experiments with female cones collected when at or near meiosis.- 3.2.3. Experiments with vegetative and sexual buds.- 4. Discussion.- Protoplast Culture of Woody Rosaceae and a Comparison to Herbaceous Rosaceae.- 0. Abstract.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Materials and Methods.- 3. Results and Discussion.- Differential Growth Response of Aspen Clones Stored at Sub-Zero Temperatures.- 0. Abstract.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Materials and Methods.- 2.1. Species and storage temperatures.- 2.1.1. Storage of twigs.- 2.1.2. Storage of buds.- 2.1.3. In vitro culture.- 3. Results and Discussion.- 3.1. Storage of twigs.- 3.1.1. Storage for one month.- 3.1.2. Storage for one year.- 3.1.3. Storage for two years.- 3.2. Storage of dormant buds.- 3.2.1. Storage for five weeks.- 3.2.2. Storage for one year.- 3.2.3. Storage for two years.- In Vitro Screening, Somaclonal Selection, Testing and Deployment.- Screening for Resistance to Hypoxylon Mammatum in Populus Tremuloides Callus and Micropropagated Plantlets.- Increased Herbicide Tolerance of in Vitro Selected Hybrid Poplar.- Abstract.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Materials and Methods.- 2.1. Plant material.- 2.2. Establishment of continuous shoot cultures.- 2.3. Optimization of adventitious shoot production.- 2.4. Somaclonal variant selection.- 2.5. Determination of herbicide lethality.- 2.6. Rechallenge of putative herbicice tolerant somaclones.- 2.7. Preliminary ex vitro testing of somaclonal variants.- 3. Results.- 4. Discussion.- The Occurrence of Endogenous Bacteria in Birch Shoot Cultures.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Procedure.- 2.1. Materials and methods.- 3. Results.- 4. Discussion.- Establishment of a Sterile Foam Cultivation System: Elimination of Formaldehyde.- Abstract.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Procedure.- 2.1. Equipment and materials.- 2.2. Preparation of liquid nutrient solution.- 2.3. Preparation of the foam cultivation system and foam pretreatment.- 2.4. Evaluation of effective formaldehyde elimination.- 2.5. Evaluation of pH shift.- 3. Results.- 4. Application.- 4.1. Cultivation of shoot tip cultures with pretreated foam.- Testing and Deployment of Brave New Plantlings.- 0. Abstract.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Problems with Deployment.- 2.1. Forestry is a conservative profession, and rightly so.- 2.2. Conservative foresters demand genetic diversity.- 3. Problems with Testing.- 3.1. Time.- 3.2. Total performance.- 3.3. Number and characteristics of test sites.- 3.4. Propagule comparability.- 4. Plant Material Used during Fundamental Research and Technique Deployment.- 5. Response to a Questionaire.- 5.1. Testing and deployment.- 5.2. Genetic identification.- 5.3. Genetic diversity.- 5.4. Whole-tree collaborators.- 5.5. Respondents' organizations.- 6. A Few Suggestions.- 6.1. Provenance.- 6.2. Pedigree.- 6.3. Clones.- 6.4. The ideal.- 6.5. Minority mixes.- 7. Some Worries about Professional Infrastructure.- Rules Governing the Release of Forest Reproductive Material Derived by in Vitro-Culture.- 0. Abstract.- 1. Introduction.- 2. The Principle of Approval.- 3. The Problem of Approving in Vitro-Culture Derived Plant Material and Solution Proposed.- 4. Rules for The Marketing of Multiclonal Mixtures.- 5. Outlook.- Guidelines for Research and Development in Biotechnology.- Abstract.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Philosophy of the Research Guidelines.- 3. Review Process.- 4. Containment.- 5. Release.- 6. Conclusion.

Pressestimmen

`The volume will be useful for investigators engaged in foretry research and is recommended as a good addition for libraries.'
H. Hattemer and P. Srivastava, Plant Breeding, 1990
`The book will undoubtedly be an excellent source of information not only for researchers engaged in genetics and breeding of woody plants but for researchers in plant physiology, genetics, and related branches in general.'
Biologia Plantarum, 33:1, 1991

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