Titel: Low-Power Crystal and MEMS Oscillators
Autor/en: Eric A. Vittoz
The Experience of Watch Developments.
XVIII, 206 p.
1. August 2010 - gebunden - 206 Seiten
Electronic oscillators using an electromechanical device as a frequency reference are irreplaceable components of systems-on-chip for time-keeping, carrier frequency generation and digital clock generation. With their excellent frequency stability and very large quality factor Q, quartz crystal resonators have been the dominant solution for more than 70 years. But new possibilities are now offered by micro-electro-mechanical (MEM) resonators, that have a qualitatively identical equivalent electrical circuit.
Low-Power Crystal and MEMS Oscillators concentrates on the analysis and design of the most important schemes of integrated oscillator circuits. It explains how these circuits can be optimized by best exploiting the very high Q of the resonator to achieve the minimum power consumption compatible with the requirements on frequency stability and phase noise. The author has 40 years of experience in designing very low-power, high-performance quartz oscillators for watches and other battery operated systems and has accumulated most of the material during this period. Some additional original material related to phase noise has been added. The explanations are mainly supported by analytical developments, whereas computer simulation is limited to numerical examples. The main part is dedicated to the most important Pierce circuit, with a full design procedure illustrated by examples. Symmetrical circuits that became popular for modern telecommunication systems are analyzed in a last chapter.
Preface. List of Symbols.
1Introduction. 1.1 Applications of Quartz Oscillators. 1.2 Historical Notes. 1.3 The Book Structure. 1.4 Basics on Oscillators.
2 Quartz and MEMs Resonators. 2.1 The Quartz Crystal resonator. 2.2 Equivalent Circuit. 2.3 Figure of Merit. 2.4 Mechanical Energy and Power Dissipation. 2.5 Various Types of Quartz Resonators. 2.6 MEMs Resonators.
3 General Theory of High-Q Oscillators. 3.1 General Form of the Oscillator. 3.2 Stable Oscillation. 3.3 Critical Condition for Oscillation and Linear Approximation. 3.4 Amplitude Limitation. 3.5 Start-up of Oscillation. 3.6 Duality. 3.7 Basic Considerations on Phase Noise. 3.8 Model of the MOS Transistor.
4 Theory of the Pierce Oscillator. 4.1 Basic Circuit. 4.2 Linear Analysis. 4.3 Nonlinear Analysis. 4.4 Phase Noise. 4.5 Design Procedure.
5 Implementations of the Pierce Oscillator. 5.1 Grounded-Source Oscillator. 5.2 Amplitude Regulation. 5.3 Extraction of the Oscillatory Signal. 5.4 CMOS-Inverter Oscillator. 5.5 Grounded Drain Oscillator.
6 Alternative Architectures. 6.1 Introduction. 6.2 Symmetrical Oscillator for Parallel Resonance. 6.3 Symmetrical Oscillator for Series Resonance. 6.4 Van den Homberg Oscillator. 6.5 Comparison of Oscillators.
Eric A. VITTOZ received the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne ( EPFL) in 1961 and 1969 respectively. He joined the Centre Electronique Horloger S.A. (CEH), Neuchâtel, in 1962, where he participated in the development of the first prototypes of electronic watches. In 1971, he was appointed Vice-Director of CEH, supervising advanced developments in electronic watches and other micropower systems. In 1984, he took the responsibility of the Circuits and Systems Research Division of the Swiss Center for Electronics and Microtechnology (CSEM) in Neucâtel, where he was appointed Executive Vice-President, Integrated Circuits and Systems, in 1991. He is also directly responsible for the Advanced Research section of CSEM. His field of personal research interest and activity is the design of low-power analog CMOS circuits, with emphasis on their application to advanced perceptive processing. Since 1975, he has been lecturing and supervising undergraduate and graduate student projects in analog circuit design at EPFL, where he became Professor in 1982. Dr. Vittoz is an IEEE Fellow, has published more than 100 papers and holds 25 patents.