The Economics of Symbolic Exchange

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This book introduces new management tools essential for the success of any economic changes in the field of culture, including recommendatory services operating as a social institution of expert consumer analysis of cultural goods and services.

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The Economics of Symbolic Exchange als eBook pdf


Titel: The Economics of Symbolic Exchange
Autor/en: Alexander Dolgin

ISBN: 9783540798835
EAN: 9783540798835
Format:  PDF
Sprache: Englisch.
Dateigröße in MByte: 7.
Springer-Verlag GmbH

17. September 2008 - pdf eBook - 503 Seiten


Alexander Dolgin's Economics of Symbolic Exchange is in reality not one but three books, and although these semantic layers are interlinked, the reader will need to choose between the different vectors and modalities. One clearly evident dimension is research. Certain authors introduce quite new intellectual approaches into scienti?c debate. This requires a special frame of mind and a searching curiosity about social reality. Carl Gustav Jung identi?ed a p- nomenon which he called systematic blindness: when a science reaches a stage of maturity and equilibrium, it categorically refuses, from a sense of self-preservation, to note certain facts and phenomena which it ?nds inconvenient. In Alexander D- gin's book whole complexes of such "non-canonical" material are to be found. Here are just a few examples: ?le exchange networks, through which digital works of art are spread through the Internet; bargain sales of fashionable clothing; the paradox of equal pricing of cultural goods of varying quality; and a discussion of whether - tronage or business has the more productive in?uence on creativity. Obviously, not all the issues Volginraises are totally new, but brought togetherand examinedwithin an elegant logical framework of informational economics, they pose a challenge to scienti?c thinking. Such challenges are by no means immediately or, in some cases, ever acclaimed bythescienti?cestablishment. J. K. Galbraith,forexample,agreatAmericaneco- mist, whose works are read throughout the world, who introduced a whole range of crucially important concepts, the director of John F.


1;Foreword;5 2;Preface;10 3;Contents;13 4;Introduction;22 5;A Promising Model for the Music Business;32 5.1;The Popular Liberation Movement in Music;32 5.1.1;Pros and Cons of Liberated Music;32 5.1.2;Copyright in Defence of Whose Interests?;35 5.1.3;The Price Structure of Sound Recordings;36 5.1.4;The Economic Basis of Contracts in the Music Industry;38 5.1.5;Peripeteias of the Introduction of Internet Distribution;40 5.1.6;The Elusive Avengers;42 5.1.7;Socio-economic Counterbalances to Copyright;42 5.1.8;Blunting the Pirates' Competitive Edge;43;Lessons of Napster. The Grokster Case;45 5.1.9;The Piracy Business Model;48 5.1.10;RIAA vs the People;49 5.1.11;How Much Does It Cost to Find a Song You Like?;50 5.1.12;The Economics of Sampling;52 5.2;The Paradox of Uniform Prices;53 5.2.1;Is It a Good Thing If Prices Are the Same?;54 5.2.2;Why Are Prices Not Differentiated?;56 5.2.3;Is a Different Price Policy Possible?;57 5.2.4;The Vulnerability of Unwrapped Cultural Products;58 5.2.5;The Flea-Market of Sound Recording;58 5.2.6;Adverse Selection in the Sound Recording Industry;60 5.3;Navigation: A New Kind of Service in the World of Music;62 5.3.1;The Solution of the Problem of Consumer Navigation: Public Assessment of Perceived Quality;62;How Are Differences of Taste to Be Taken into Account?;63;What Should Reviewers Evaluate in Music?;64 5.3.2;The Invention That Never Was;65;Collaborative Filtration: A Fundamental Solution to the Problem of Navigation;65;The Mechanism of Collaborative Filtration;65;Ringo-The World's First Music Suggestion System: Its History and Its Experience;66;Stopping Filtration;68;The Technology Substitution Trick;70;Who Is Filtering Whom?;71;The Business Version of Collaborative Filtration, or Why You Should Compromise Your Principles;73;Collaborative Filtration and the Price System;75;Recommendation as a Self-sufficient Business;77 5.3.3;An Invention
Whose Time Is Yet to Come;78;The Cinema and Theatron Projects: A Field Trial of a Two-Stage Payment System;79;Why Money Rather than Points?;80 5.3.4;How to Constitute a Stock Exchange for Culture;81;Difficulties and Worries;83 5.3.5;Advantages of the New Model;84;The Economic Logic of the Solution Proposed;85 5.3.6;Forerunners of a Cultural Stock Exchange;86;The Real Significance of the New Artist Programme;86 6;Adverse Selection in the Culture Industries;90 6.1;Consumer Navigation in Culture;90 6.2;Economics on Culture;93 6.3;Business Interests vs the Interests of the Consumer;95 6.4;Adverse Selection in Culture: Formulating the Question;98 6.4.1;Information Inequality as a Reason for Rewriting the Market Rules;100 6.4.2;What is a Tendency to Adverse Selection?;100;In Praise of `Lemons';100;Other Examples of Information Asymmetry: Pre-Contractual Opportunism;101 6.5;The Susceptibility of Culture to Adverse Selection;103 6.5.1;Preconditions for the Appearance of Adverse Selection;103 6.5.2;How Adverse Selection Operates in Culture;105 6.5.3;Symptoms of Adverse Selection in Culture;106 6.5.4;Why Is It Difficult to Prove Adverse Selection in Culture?;106 6.5.5;Unification of Prices and Adverse Selection;109 6.5.6;Why Do Suppliers Leave Prices Alone?;110;Block Booking in the Cinema;115 6.5.7;The Main Thing About Price;117 6.6;Market Agents' Reactions to Adverse Selection;117 6.6.1;Degeneration of Creative Artists;119;Patronage or the Market?;122;State Patronage or Private Patronage?;125 6.6.2;Degeneration of the Public;128;A Pragmatic Definition of Art;130;The Placebo Effect in Culture;132;Price as a Guide in Fostering Good Taste;133 6.6.3;Overworking the Critics;135 6.6.4;The Cost Disease of Manually Attesting Art;136;Consumer Navigation and the Role of the Critic;136;Where Do Critics Find Pure Water?;139;Collective Professional Assessment;14
2;Ratings;147 6.7;A Survey of Recommender Systems;152 6.7.1;Content Methods of Generating Recommendations;153;Drawbacks;154 6.7.2;Collaborative Systems;154 6.7.3;Collaborative Methods of Generating Recommendations;155;Snags and Drawbacks;157 6.7.4;Hybrid Methods of Generating Recommendations;161 6.7.5;Effectiveness and Dimensionality of Recommendations;162 6.8;Tendering for Expert Advice;164 7;The Economic Logic of Creative Reputations;166 7.1;The Impossibility of Insurance and Guarantees;166 7.2;Selling Shares in Art;168 7.3;The Economic Nature of Cultural Goods;169 7.3.1;The Role of Brands;169 7.3.2;The Distinctiveness of Cultural Goods;170 7.3.3;Unobservable Quality Plus Non-repeatability;172 7.3.4;The Economic Approach to Determining Quality: Search, Experience, Interpretation and Credence;173 7.3.5;The Time-Money Scale of Cultural Consumption;178 7.3.6;Experience vs. Search Goods: Some Difficulties of Classification;179 7.4;The Repute of Brand Reputations;180 7.4.1;The Traditional View of Advertising;182 7.4.2;How Economics Currently Views Advertising;184;What Does `To Condition' Mean?;184;Attention Economics;185;Branding and `Cheap Talk';186;Whom Does an Advertisement Tell About What?;187;Branding as a Rational Modern Version of Sacrifice;187;`Hand-Made' as Sacrifice;188;Reciprocity of Cultural Exchange;189;Genetically Engineering the `Hand-Made';191 7.4.3;Entry Barriers for Some, Exit Barriers for Others;194 7.4.4;The Ratio of Quality to Advertising;195;Interiors Instead of Cuisine;196 7.4.5;What Influences the Informativeness of Brands and Prices?;197 7.4.6;Branding Strategies;198;Brand Management: Playing by the Rules and Playing Outside the Rules;199;The Example of Mercedes;200;Common Situations in Cultural Branding;201 7.4.7;(Non-)Functional Demand as the Patrimony of Cultural Brands;202 7.5;Information Economics of the Fashion Industrie
s;206 7.5.1;Price Discrimination: A Result and Source of Asymmetric Information;207;Bundle Selling;209 7.5.2;The Economic View of Fashion Sales Reductions;210;Ethical Aspects of Sales: Two Negative External Effects;211 7.5.3;Competition in the Fashion Industry;214;How Shock-Proof Are Brands? The Case of Pierre Cardin;217;The Gucci Story;217;Assimilation of Fashion Brands;219 7.5.4;The Overall Trend of Changes in Fashion;220;Stretching a Reputation: The Case of Polo Ralph Lauren;220;What Determines the Pace of Change in Fashion?;223;Luxury Superseded by New Luxury;226;How Is Fashion Born?;227 7.5.5;Aura and Price;228 7.5.6;What Do Fashion and Music Have in Common?;232 7.6;Cultural Navigation by the Stars;234 7.6.1;Economic Astrology;234 7.6.2;Stars and Perceived Quality;238 7.6.3;The Blockbuster and the Information Cascade;242 7.6.4;Set a Star to Detonate a Blockbuster;245 7.6.5;Stars and the Films on Offer;246 7.6.6;Poor Reception on the Bush Telegraph;249 7.7;Arbitrage in the Ticket Market;251 7.7.1;Speculators as Pilots in the Sea Lanes of Culture;251;Ticket Speculation: The Cradle of Russian Big Business;254 7.7.2;Should Touts Be Done Away With?;255;Laws on Ticket Speculation (Scalping) in the USA;256;What Are Touts For?;257;More on the Advantages and Disadvantages of Touts;259 7.7.3;On the Influence of Speculation on Social Welfare;260 7.7.4;Online versus Offline Sales;261;A Futures Ticket Market as an Alternative to the Speculators;263 7.7.5;Signalling Quality as an External Effect of Piracy;263 7.8;Television as a Testbed for Attention Economics;266 7.8.1;TiVo and VoD: Operators in the Leisure Time Market;268 7.9;Recommendation in Culture Without the Middleman;269 8;The Concept of Cultural Welfare;272 8.1;Market Measurement of Cultural Value;272 8.1.1;Correlating Price and Value;272 8.1.2;Price, Value, and Scarcity;275 8.1.3;Economic Orthodoxy on Pri
ce;276 8.1.4;Consumption as Collecting: The Paradox of Non-decreasing Utility;280 8.1.5;A Utopian Approach to the Measurement of Value;283 8.1.6;Non-market Methods of Determining Cultural Value;284 8.1.7;Techniques Using Revealed Preferences;285 8.2;Cultural Value in the Light of Welfare Theory;286 8.2.1;Happiness Economics;286 8.2.2;Welfare Economics and Social Choice Economics;289 8.3;Assessing Welfare Through Culture;293 8.4;Material Enrichment vs. Personal Cost;294 8.5;Quality Personal Time: The Universal Indicator and Goal of Culture;296 8.5.1;Art as a Means of Creating Quality Time;298 8.5.2;Collaborative Filtering: A Means of Indicating Quality Time;300 8.6;The Ultimate Goal of Culture: Increasing Symbolic Capital;301 8.6.1;What Is Symbolic Capital?;301 8.6.2;Assessing Symbolic Capital;301 8.6.3;The `Decile Coefficient' of Symbolic Capital;302 8.7;A Modified Relational Contract in Culture;304 8.8;Money and Donation;305 8.8.1;Money and Micro-Patronage;308 8.8.2;Voluntary Payment Systems;309 8.9;The Future of Copyright;311 8.9.1;Copyright as a Bridge between Art and Commerce;311;The Birth of Copyright;314 8.9.2;An Economic Analysis of Copyright;315;What Is Copyright?;315;Testing the Underlying Rationale of Copyright;317 8.9.3;Copyright and the Progress of Digital Technologies;320;The Moral Deterioration of Copyright;320;The Problem of Derivative Creative Products;321;The Blurred Contours of Copyright;323;The Two-Edged Effect of New Technologies;326;Copyright: Does It Do Authors Any Favours?;327 8.9.4;Regulating the Scope of Copyright;328;Is the Law an Ass?;329 8.9.5;The Economic Philosophy of Copyright;331;Copyright and Folklore;333;Example: Leeches in the Village Pond;334 8.9.6;Is a Market Without Copyright Possible?;335 8.9.7;Copyright from the Viewpoint of Symbolic Economics;337 8.9.8;Cultural Communism is Copyleft Plus Collaboration of the Whole Realm of Culture;338 8.9.
8.1;What Is Copyleft?;338 8.9.9;The Anatomy of the Long Tail;341 9;Conclusion;344 10;The Marketing of Music Recordings;348 10.1;Introduction;348 10.2;Overview of Trends in the Sound Recording Industry;348 10.2.1;Some Overall Indicators of the Music Recording Market;351 10.3;Types of Sound Recording and Manufacturing Technology;353 10.3.1;Types of Music Products;353 10.3.2;Stages in Creating an Audio Album;353 10.3.3;Encoding (Digitisation) Technology;355 10.3.4;Principles and Formats for Digital Sound Compression;357 10.3.5;Properties of Digital Sound Recording Formats;358;MP3 (MPEG-1 Audio Layer 3);358;MPEG-2/4 AAC (Advanced Audio Coding)/MP4;359;WMA (Windows Media Audio);359;OGG Vorbis;359;Musepack (MPEG plus);360;Real Audio;360;Moving between Formats;360 10.3.6;Types of Media;361;Music Sales Trends by Media Type;361 10.3.7;Compact Disc Manufacturing Technology;365 10.3.8;The Evolution of Digital Data Media;365 10.4;Key Players in the Music Recording Market;366 10.4.1;The Major Labels;367;Recent Mergers and Takeovers in the Sound Recording Industry;371 10.4.2;Independent Sound Recording Companies (the Indie Labels);372 10.4.3;Music Publishers;373 10.4.4;Artists;375;The Artistic Career Ladder;375;The Contract Between the Performer and the Company: Ideology and Key Elements;376;Performers Income and Outgoings;377;Private Enterprise by the Stars;378;Artists' Sales Ratings;378;The Life-Cycle of a Music Product;379 10.5;Commercial Outlets and Channels for Promotion;379 10.5.1;Mass Media Channels for Promoting Music;381 10.6;Radio;381 10.7;Television;381 10.8;The Internet;381 10.9;Cinema;382 10.10;Computer and Video Games;382 10.10.1;The Impact of Different Media on American Consumers;382 10.10.2;Legal Distribution of Albums on Physical Media;382;Retail Distribution of Compact Discs;382;The Role of the Main Store Oper
ators like Wal-Mart;384;Distribution of Compact Discs Through Record Clubs;384 10.10.3;Online Distribution of Music;385;Formation of a Legal Online Music Market;386;Development of the Online Music Market in Europe;387;Legal Online Services Outside the USA and Europe;388;Problems of Creating a Legal Online Business;388;Options for Buying Music on the Internet;389 10.11;Price Formation and Price in the Music Industry;390 10.11.1;Typical Production Costs of a CD;391 10.11.2;The Retail Price of Music on CD and Online;394;Economic Indicators of Online Stores;395 10.11.3;The Price Trend;396 10.11.4;Consumer Costs of Obtaining Music Through Various Channels;397 10.12;Description of Demand/Consumption;403 10.12.1;Average per Capita Media Usage;403 10.12.2;Consumer Profiles;405;Buyers of Music Products by Age, %;405;Buyers of Music Products by Gender, %;406;Distribution by Buying Activity;406;Distribution of Demand by Country;406 10.13;Piracy in the Music Market;407 10.13.1;Pirate Products on Physical Media;407;The Scale of Pirate Markets;407;The Extent of Piracy on Physical Media;412;Levels of Music Piracy by Country, 2004;413;Compact Disc Manufacturing Capacities;414;Transportation Routes of Counterfeit Discs;414;Main Regions for Piracy;415 10.13.2;Illegal Distribution of Digital Music;415;Influence of High-Speed Internet on the Sound-Recording Market;417 10.14;The Environment of Online Piracy: Peer-to-Peer Networks;419 10.14.1;What Are Peer-to-Peer Networks?;419 10.14.2;The Evolution of Peer-to-Peer Networks;420 10.14.3;Analysis of File Sharing by Content Type;425 10.14.4;Problems of Peer-to-Peer Network Clients;425 10.14.5;Business Models of Peer-to-Peer Networks;432;Business Models with Free Access to Content;433 10.14.6;Parasite Programs;433 10.14.7;Further Development of Peer-to-Pe
er Networks;435 10.14.8;The Geographical Distribution of Peer-to-Peer Networks;436 10.14.9;The Level of Global Peering Traffic;438 10.15;The Struggle Against Internet Piracy;438 10.15.1;Technical Protection of Content;439;Principles of Protection;439;Persistent Encryption of Content;440;Different Terms for the Sale of Content;441 10.15.2;Informational and Educational Campaign;441 10.15.3;Collaboration with Internet Providers;443 10.15.4;Release of Anti-Piracy Computer Programs;444 10.15.5;Professional Guilds, Societies, and Associations in Russia and the USA for Safeguarding the Interests of Market Participants;444;The International Federation of the Phonographic Industry (IFPI,;444;The Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA,;445;The National Music Publishers' Association (NMPA,;445;The Russian Society for Multimedia and Digital Networks (ROMS,;445;The Russian Authors' Society (RAO,;445;The Russian Society for the Management of Performers' Rights (ROUPI);446;The Russian Phonographic Association (RFA,;446;The National Federation of Phonogram Manufacturers (NFPF,;446;Association of DVD Publishers (;446;IFPI Against Piracy;447 10.15.6;Independent Civil Rights Organisations;448 10.15.7;Influence of Macro-Economic Factors on the Sound Recording Market;449 10.16;Means of Navigation on the Internet;449 10.16.1;Recommender Systems Based on DSP Technologies;449 10.16.2;Survey of Software for Digital Music Recognition;452;eTantrum;452;Uplister;453;Mongo Music;453;Gracenote (;453;Tuneprint (;453;Friskit (;454;MoodLogic (;454;Relatable (;455 10.16.3;Hybrid Re
commender Systems;455;Musicmobs (;455;MediaUnbound's AudioInsight (;456 10.16.4;Personally Attunable Internet-Radio Stations;457;Yahoo's Launchcast (;457 10.16.5;Partnerships of Independent Recommender Systems with Content Providers (Online Music Services and e-Retailers);458;GenieLab (;458 10.16.6;Recommender Systems in e-Commerce;458;Examples of Recommender Systems Used in e-Commerce;459;;459;Recommender Service on OD2 (;459;The eMusic Recommender Service (;461;Upto11 (;462 10.16.7;Recommender Systems as a Means of Promoting Independent Performers;462;iRate Radio (;462;inDiscover (;463 10.16.8;Users' Ratings of Recommender Systems;463 10.16.9;Recommender Systems and Mobile Phone Communications;466 10.17;Personalised menus and content recommendations;466 10.18;Juxtaposition of Profiles of People with Similar Tastes;467 10.19;Related Markets;468 10.19.1;The MP3 Player Market;468;Types of Players;469;Flash Players;469;CD Players Supporting the MP3 Format;469;Hard Drive (HDD) Players;470;MP3 Players and Their Influence on the Development of the Music Market;470 10.19.2;The Ringtone Market;471 11;Lawsuits Against Peering Networks;474 11.1;The Case of RIAA versus Napster;474 11.1.1;Discussion of Sampling in the Napster Case;474 11.1.2;The Nature and Extent of Napster's Guilt;475 11.2;The Grokster Case;476 11.2.1;The chronology of events was as follows:;476 11.3;25 April 2003;476 11.4;20 August 2003;477 11.5;19 August 2004;477 11.6;29 March 2005;478 11.7;27 June 2005;478 11.8;7 November 2005;478 11.9;Chronology of Lawsuits After the Closure of Napster;479 11.10;19 September 2003;479 11.11;19 December 2003
;479 11.12;February-March 2004;479 11.13;25 March 2004;479 11.14;May 2004;479 11.15;23 June 2004;480 11.16;July 2004;480 11.17;10 September 2004;480 11.18;Late September-early October 2004;480 11.19;October 2004;480 11.20;8 July 2005;480 11.21;5 September 2005;481 11.22;September 2005;481 11.23;October 2005;481 11.24;October 2005;481 11.25;November 2005;481 11.26;December 2005;481 11.27;15 December 2005;481 11.28;December 2005;482 11.29;February 2006;482 11.30;March 2006;482 11.31;23 March 2006;482 11.32;April 2006;482 11.32.1;Regional Lawsuits Against Peer-to-Peer Networks;482 11.32.2;Lawsuits Against Private Individuals;483 11.33;The Betamax Case;483 12;Types of Free Licenses;486 12.1;Public Domain;486 12.2;GNU General Public License;486 12.3;GNU Free Documentation License;486 12.4;Design Science License (DSL);487 12.5;Free Art License;487 12.6;Ethymonics Free Music License;487 12.7;Creative Commons (CC);487 12.8;EFF Open Audio License;488 12.9;Open Music Licenses;489 12.10;Mozilla Public License (MPL);489 12.11;Berkeley Software Distribution License (BSD License);490 12.12;MIT License;490 13;The Theatron and Cinema Projects;492 13.1;The Research Topic;492 13.2;Tasks of the Research;494 13.3;Research Method;494 13.4;The Results;495 13.4.1;Theatron Project;495 14;References;510


Alexander Dolgin is Professor and head of the Chair of Economics of Culture at the State University - Higher School of Economics, Moscow. He has published two books and over one hundred research papers and popular articles. The main focus of his research interests is the institutional economics of culture, which covers diverse topics such as the deteriorating cultural selection processes, the economics of creative reputations, the theory of the welfare of culture, the economics of the copyright and many others.


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