Titel: Annual Editions: Social Psychology 05/06
Autor/en: Karen Grover Duffy
Dezember 2004 - kartoniert - 224 Seiten
This annually updated reader is a compilation of current magazine, newspaper, and journal articles. Annual Editions titles are supported with study tools and links to related websites at our student website, Dushkin Online (www.dushkin.com/online/).
UNIT 1. Research Issues
1. Stupid Human Tricks, Ana Marie Cox, American Scholar, Spring 2004
Many experiments in psychology and social psychology have drawn harsh criticism by analysts. Was it really necessary for Milgram to prod his subjects to torture strangers? Did Darley and Latane s experiments on altruism present us with true laws of human behavior? Questions about ethical and methodological issues are explored in this article.
2. Research Synthesis: Protection of Human Subjects of Research: Recent Developments and Future Prospects for the Social Sciences, Eleanor Singer and Felice J. Levine, Public Opinion Quarterly, Spring 2003
The authors discuss the National Research Act that established the requirement for Institutional Review Boards when humans participate in research. What this has meant and will mean in the future for social and behavioral scientists is reviewed.
UNIT 2. The Self
3. Something From Nothing: Seeking a Sense of Self, Lance Strate, A Review of General Semantics, Spring 2003
This thoughtful article unfolds the notion that a sense of self comes from communicating with others. Various psychological concepts from Freudian theory to autism are discussed in the process of examining from where self originates.
4. Self-Concordance and Subjective Well-Being in Four Cultures, Kennon M. Sheldon et. al., Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, March 2004
Self-concordance occurs when people pursue goals that best fit their own values and interests rather than goals others tell them they should pursue. In the study presented here, while there existed some differences based on culture, self-concordance or owning one s actions correlated with subjective well-being, signaling that this may be a universal human value.
5. Making Sense of Self-Esteem, Mark R. Leary, Current Directions in Psychological Science, February 1999
Why is self-esteem important? Social psychologist Mark Leary proposes an interesting answer: that self-esteem evolved as a way for us to monitor ourselves, especially the degree to which other people value their relationships with us. Because of the severe evolutionary consequences of being rejected, self-esteem developed as a way to check our social standing and take action to repair it when necessary.
6. Why We Overestimate Our Competence, Tori DeAngelis, Monitor on Psychology, February 2003
Why do people inflate their estimations of their own abilities? According to DeAngelis, there are many reasons, including the lack of feedback from others. Interestingly, those who have the weakest abilities overestimate the most. As discovered in research on new doctors who inflated their diagnostic abilities, overestimating competence can have important consequences for self and others.
UNIT 3. Social Cognition and Social Perception
Part A. Social Cognition
7. How Social Perception Can Automatically Influence Behavior, Melissa J. Ferguson and John A. Bargh, Trends in Cognitive Sciences, January 2004
Knowledge that is incidentally activated in memories can inadvertently influence our behaviors. This is especially likely to happen during social perception and social cognition.
8. Make-Believe Memories, Elizabeth F. Loftus, American Psychologist, November 2003
Loftus, a well-known psychologist, explains why ideas and memories can easily be planted in our minds simply by the way we are questioned or asked to remember. The results of her research have implications for police investigations, therapy settings, and anywhere else that individuals are asked to report memories.
9. How Culture Molds Habits of Thought, Erica Goode, The New York Times, August 8, 2000
Writer Erica Goode describes recent work that indicates that fundamental processes of social inference, which have long been thought to not vary across cultures, may in fact differ considerably. For instance, Eastern and Western cultures differ on the kind of casual attributions made for another s behavior.
Part B. Social Perception
10. More Than One Way to Make an Impression: Exploring Profiles of Impression Management, Mark C. Bolino and William H. Turnley, Journal of Management Education, April 2003
This research reviews and explores principles of impression management, which involves manipulating how we present ourselves to others so as to leave a specific impression. Two studies are included that explicate impression management profiles.
UNIT 4. Attitudes
11. Sources of Implicit Attitudes, Current Directions in Psychological Science, April 2004
Explicit attitudes are ones we report to others. Implicit attitudes are those that influence us but about which we are often unaware. Scientists are unsure why individuals hold these two types of attitudes and are busy researching the origins of implicit attitudes.
12. The Science and Practice of Persuasion, Robert B. Cialdini and Noah J. Goldstein, Cornell Hotel & Restaurant Administration Quarterly, April 2002
The authors review six tried and true strategies related to persuasion or the process of one person trying to sway another s viewpoint. In short, the principles include liking, reciprocation, consistency, scarcity, social validation, and authority.
13. Overcoming Terror, Philip Zimbardo and Bruce Kluger, Psychology Today, July 24, 2003
Zimbardo reviews elements of persuasive messages, especially ones that contain threatening information. He then analyzes the terror alerts to which Americans recently have been exposed. He concludes that these newer messages contain drastic shortcomings and that Paul Revere s message The British are coming was much better orchestrated.
UNIT 5. Social Influence
14. Abu Ghraib Brings A Cruel Reawakening, Clive Cookson, The Financial Times, July 2, 2004
The torture of Iraqi prisoners by American soldiers shocked the world. Clive Cookson examines the issue and its causes. After reviewing the research on Zimbardös mock prison, he concludes that we are all capable of such abusive behavior.
15. Liking: The Friendly Thief, Robert B. Cialdini, from Influence: Science and Practice, Chapter 5, Boston: Allyn & Bacon, 2001
One of the most effective forms of persuasion is when a friend sets out to change your mind. It is difficult to resist when the persuader is someone you like. Noted social psychologist Robert Cialdini discusses how and why compliance pressures increase as our liking for the persuader increases.
16. Persuasion: What Will It Take to Convince You?, Michael J. Lovaglia, from Knowing People: The Personal Use of Social Psychology, McGraw-Hill, 2000
A factor that can make persuasion attempts more effective involves the strategic way in which the request is made. Michael Lovaglia describes how the foot-in-the-door technique (making small requests before larger ones) can lead to greater compliance, and also how the norm of reciprocity can produce in others a feeling of obligation.
UNIT 6. Social Relationships
Part A. Interpersonal Relationships
17. Beyond Shyness and Stage Fright: Social Anxiety Disorder, Harvard Mental Health Letter, October 2003
Many Americans describe themselves as shy, but for some shyness is extreme. For the latter individuals, social anxiety causes them misery and it seriously interferes with work, friendships, and family life. These individuals may suffer from social anxiety disorder or social phobia, which today is highly treatable.
18. Linking Up Online, Rebecca A. Clay, Monitor on Psychology, April 2000
Recent research on the link between Internet use and social variables such as loneliness has produced contradictory results. Rebecca Clay summarizes the major findings thus far and suggests that the Internet may also provide an opportunity to form new communities that would otherwise be impossible.
Part B. Intimate Relationships
19. Isn t She Lovely?, Brad Lemley, Discover, February 2000
Social psychologists have long known about the power of physical attractiveness more beautiful and handsome people are seen as superior in a number of ways. Recently, however, considerable research has explored exactly what it is that makes someone attractive. Brad Lemley examines research that suggests that a large role is played by evolutionary processes, as well as cultural influences.
20. If It s Easy Access That Really Makes You Click, Log On Here, Karen Gold, Time Higher Education Supplement, February 13, 2004
Karen Gold addresses how access to online potential romantic partners is not only changing when and how people meet others, it is also changing our concepts of infidelity, dating, and even marriage.
21. The Marriage Savers, Richard Corliss and Sonja Steptoe, Time, January 19, 2004
The divorce rate is high but so, too, is the number of therapists ready to treat couples. With so many therapists and couples seeking assistance, a cogent question is Does couples therapy work? The authors attempt to answer this question in a thoughtful and scientific fashion.
UNIT 7. Social Biases
Part A. Prejudice
22. The Self-Protective Properties of Stigma: Evolution of a Modern Classic, Jennifer Crocker and Brenda Major, Psychological Inquiry, 2003
Two of the leading researchers on stigma and prejudice describe how they came to do their work together and why their early work has become a modern classic. They continue to research stigma and its effects on self-esteem in addition to other important aspects of a person s self-concept and behavior.
Part B. Stereotyping
23. Change of Heart, Adam Goodheart, AARP The Magazine, May/June 2004
Discrimination takes place when prejudiced persons act on their biases against others. Discrimination can occur in denial of housing, jobs, education and other necessities. A recent survey shows that despite the existence of prejudice and discrimination in American society, an increasing number of Americans are open to
sharing their life, work, and love with people of different races and ethnicities.
24. Thin Ice: Stereotype Threat and Black College Students, Claude M. Steele, The Atlantic Monthly, August 1999
One of the most interesting concepts in contemporary social psychology is the notion of stereotype threat the idea that the fear of confirming a negative stereotype about one s group can lead to changes in motivation and self-concept. Social psychologist Claude Steele indicates that it can have powerful negative implications for minority students.
UNIT 8. Violence and Aggression
25. Prime-Time Violence 1993 2001: Has The Picture Really Changed?, Nancy Signorielli, Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, March 2003
Author Nancy Signorielli reviews the frequency of violence on prime time television and concludes that little to nothing has changed despite watchdog groups efforts to decrease the amount of televised violence. In fact, Signorielli suggests, the lack of context in violent programs may teach that violence is sanitary and that those who commit violence are not sorry or punished.
26. How Psychology Can Help Explain The Iraqi Prisoner Abuse, APA Office of Public Communications, May 2004
Recent abuses of Iraqi prisoners by U.S. soldiers have left Americans stunned. Why did this abuse take place? Why was the abuse so humiliating for the prisoners? Experts in social psychology offer very plausible explanations, some of them based on Zimbardös famous mock prison research.
27. Bullying: It Isn t What It Used to Be, Janice Selekman and Judith A. Vessey, Pediatric Nursing, May/June 2004
Bullying may appear to be a rite of passage, but the way children bully one another today has changed. Outright violence, suicide, and sometimes murder are more likely to occur than in the past.
28. Influencing, Negotiating Skills, and Conflict-Handling: Some Additional Research and Reflections, Tony Manning and Bob Robertson, Industrial and Commercial Training, March 1, 2004
Negotiation and social influence can go a long way toward conflict management. The authors present data to this effect; their research suggests, however, that negotiation goes beyond mere conflict management. The authors also discuss situations in which negotiation may or may not be appropriate.
UNIT 9. Altruism, Helping and Cooperation
29. The Nature of Human Altruism, Ernst Fehr and Urs Fischbacher, Nature, October 23, 2003
Altruism is central to human existence say the authors. Research evidence advances the notion that altruists and egoists affect each other. Thus, the authors claim both heredity and culture influence an individual s level of altruism.
30. Cause of Death: Uncertain(ty), Robert B. Cialdini, from Influence: Science and Practice, Chapter 4, Boston: Allyn & Bacon, 2001
One of the most influential social psychological theories of helping has been the bystander intervention model developed by Darley and Latane. Robert Cialdini describes the model and what led to its initial formulation, and offers some very specific advice on requesting emergency help.
31. Trends in the Social Psychological Study of Justice, Linda J. Skitka and Faye J. Crosby, Personality and Social Psychology Review, November 1, 2003
Justice or, loosely, fairness among inidividuals is the basis for much human cooperation. This article reviews past literature and points to new directions in the study of social justice.
UNIT 10. Group Processes
Part A. Leadership
32. Putting Leaders on the Couch, Diane L. Coutu, Harvard Business Review, January 2004
Noted researcher Manfred Kets de Vries shares with the reader his ideas about leadership identifying successful leaders, studying commonalities among leaders, leading groups in different cultures, and so forth. One overarching and important concept to successful leadership is emotional intelligence.
33. When Followers Become Toxic, Lynn R. Offermann, Harvard Business Review, January 2004
Followers use all manner of manipulative techniques (for example flattery) to get on the good side of their leader. Astute leaders know how to overcome such attempts so that their decisions are based on what is best for the group (or the organization) rather than based on sycophancy.
Part B. Groups
34. Interpersonal Skills: What They Are, How to Improve Them, and How to Apply Them, Charles R. McConnell, The Health Care Manager, April June 2004
Interpersonal skills are essential in group settings. Many people, however, believe that they are good communicators or possess excellent interpersonal skills when they, in fact, do not. Such skills can be developed but need to be practiced to become ingrained.
35. Senate Intelligence Report: Groupthink Viewed as Culprit in Move to War, Vicki Kemper, Los Angeles Times, July 10, 2004
Groupthink is a group decision-making process identified by social psychologists. When groups and leaders ignore or discount outside advice, the result is a bad decision or groupthink. Many other historic events from the Bay of Pigs invasion to the explosions of the space shuttles undoubtedly were the result of this insular style of group decision making.