Titel: Annual Editions: Human Development 06/07
Autor/en: Karen L. Freiberg
Oktober 2005 - kartoniert - 224 Seiten
This thirty-fourth edition of ANNUAL EDITIONS: HUMAN DEVELOPMENT provides convenient, inexpensive access to current articles selected from the best of the public press. Organizational features include: an annotated listing of selected World Wide Web sites; an annotated table of contents; a topic guide; a general introduction; brief overviews for each section; a topical index; and an instructor's resource guide with testing materials. USING ANNUAL EDITIONS IN THE CLASSROOM is offered as a practical guide for instructors. ANNUAL EDITIONS titles are supported by our student website, www.dushkin.com/online.
UNIT 1. Genetic and Prenatal Influences on Development
Part A. Genetic Influences
1. The Identity Dance, Gunjan Sinha, Psychology Today, March/April 2004
Identical twins are clones with the same genetic profiles. Life experience, therefore, must matter if identical twins develop unlike emotions, health problems, and personalities. This article reports scientific evidence that genes have the equivalent of molecular switches that can be turned on or off by prenatal and postnatal environmental factors. Several unlike identical twins are described.
2. The Age of Genetic Technology Arrives, Leon R. Kass, The American Spectator, November/December 2002
The 30,000 human genes have been mapped and biotech businesses are booming. Will genetic engineering result in every baby being born without any mental or physical disabilities? Will we eliminate tumors and infections, enhance immunity, and make disease extinct? How much more memory, or years of life, will we add? Will we be fulfilled or dehumanized? Leon Kass addresses these ethical issues.
3. Brave New Babies, Claudia Kalb, Newsweek, January 26, 2004
Reproductive technology has made it possible for parents to have their eggs and sperm united in a lab dish. After selecting the genetic characteristics they want, the appropriate embryo (or embryos) is implanted in the mother for gestation. This practice has raised some troubling questions. Claudia Kalb addresses these questions of morality and ethics.
Part B. Prenatal Influences
4. Inside the Womb, J. Madeleine Nash, Time, November 11, 2002
Embryonic cells, also known as stem cells, generate most of the human organ systems in the earliest weeks of prenatal development. Not only aberrant genes, but also health, stress, nutrition, and toxins (e.g., drugs) can alter the precision of stem cell transformations. Concerns for embryonic development are not yet, but should become, a political priority, argues Nash.
5. The Mystery of Fetal Life: Secrets of the Womb, John Pekkanen, Current, September 2001
Environment affects prenatal development. This article reviews known dangers (e.g., alcohol and drug use, viral infections) and recently discovered endocrine disrupters (e.g., chemicals in our air, food, and water). The author gives advice on exercise, nutrition, and health maintenance to optimize the physical and cognitive status of the offspring.
6. A New Fertility Factor, Alice D. Domar, Newsweek, September 27, 2004
The body-mind connection is considered an important factor in conception. While fertility-drug injections are still used to help establish a pregnancy, alternative health care methods complementary medicines such as meditation, yoga, relaxation therapy, and psychotherapy are increasingly useful for women. The stress of procreation failure creates anxiety and depression which interferes with fertility.
UNIT 2. Development During Infancy and Early Childhood
Part A. Infancy
7. Four Things You Need to Know About Raising Baby, Joanna Lipari, Psychology Today, July/August 2000
In this article, Joanna Lipari explains the synthesis of important aspects of areas of infant development genetic inheritance, physical development, cognitive skills, and emotional attachment into a new view that equates parenting behaviors to software that promotes the growth of the baby s brain (hardware). Lipari discusses attachment theory and compares old thinking about raising a baby with research-guided new thinking.
8. Whös Raising Baby?, Anne R. Pierce, The World & I, February 2002
What happens to self-esteem and emotional/personality development when babies are rushed to do everything sooner and better than others? The author contends that parenting and infancy should be more about love of learning. Through play, babies discover their individuality and genetically driven interests. Pressuring them to conform to gender-appropriate activities (e.g., sports, ballet) or academic pursuits is miseducation.
9. And Now, the Hard Part: That Sweet Little Thing Is About to Commandeer Your Life, Lauren Picker, Newsweek, April 25, 2005
Research documents the plunge in marital bliss upon a baby s arrival. Infant caregiving is compared to the popular TV show Survivor. Gender roles are challenged as to division of labor. Sibling rivalry is real. The majority of mothers must adjust their careers to accommodate parenting demands. Financial worries abound. Despite all the anxiety, babies still enrich their family s existence.
Part B. Early Childhood
10. Long-Term Studies of Preschool: Lasting Benefits Far Outweigh Costs, Gerald W. Bracey and Arthur Stellar, Phi Delta Kappan, June 2003
This article summarizes three research studies showing the long-lasting benefits of early childhood education (e.g., higher education, career success, stable marriage, moral living) for preschool children living in poverty at time of interventions. Each of the programs had extensive parenting involvement and encouraged attachment bonds. The authors argue that high quality preschool today, taxpayer-funded, would reap future rewards for the USA.
11. Guilt Free TV, Daniel McGinn, Newsweek, November 11, 2002
A new generation of parents use television as an aid to early childhood socialization. New high-quality programs improve cognitive skills, language, self-esteem, and emotional intelligence. Some families still have anxiety about sex and violence. Kids TV is improving however.
12. Raising a Moral Child, Karen Springen, Newsweek, Special Issue, Fall/Winter 2000
Parents are held responsible for ethics and morality training during early childhood. Our culture has fewer moral role models than before and more and more aggression and violence, increasing the urgency for moral lessons. Karen Springen relays the advice of several experts on how to help preschoolers learn right from wrong.
UNIT 3. Development During Childhood: Cognition and Schooling
Part A. Cognition
13. A Time and a Place for Authentic Learning, Joseph S. Renzulli, Marcia Gentry, and Sally M. Reis, Educational Leadership, September 2004
The process of knowing (cognition) is often lost as educators teach to the test to improve state mandated achievement scores. Education rooted in cognitive science is found in schools that emphasize student thinking. The authors of this article describe authentic learning situations in which students become excited about learning in enrichment clusters.
14. The New Science of Dyslexia, Christine Gorman, Time, July 28, 2003
Genetic differences in brain wiring are now believed to create dyslexia. Children with dyslexia are skilled problem-solvers and many achieve fame in arts and science. Reading involves separating language into phonemes, analyzing sounds, and automatically detecting them. Educational practices can improve these cognitive skills.
15. Metacognitive Development, Deanna Kuhn, Current Directions in Psychological Science, October 2000
Cognitive development that reflects on itself is called metacognition. Understanding intellectual performance will allow parents, teachers, and others to help children develop effective metacognitive awareness. Deanna Kuhn suggests that knowledge of metastrategies will help us to understand how education occurs or fails to occur.
Part B. Schooling
16. Trick Question, Michael Fumento, The New Republic, February 3, 2003
Our culture has been critical of calling attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) a real disorder. We blame parenting, stress, and educational settings for inattention and impulsivity. We claim the drug Ritalin reduces creativity and makes boys more like girls. This article gives the facts about ADHD and its treatments, including Ritalin use.
17. The Future of Computer Technology in K 12 Education, Frederick Bennett, Phi Delta Kappan, April 2002
The author argues that the computer culture will benefit education. Creative individuals can develop software with many cognitive advantages. However, the improvements will not happen until teaching undergoes a major alteration. Parents, politicians, and citizens must want this to happen.
18. Why We Need The Year of Languages , Sandy Cutshall, Educational Leadership, December 2004/January 2005
The future USA culture will require multilingualism to interact with the millions of earth s people who speak, for example, Chinese, Arabic, Indonesian, and Russian. Our national security is threatened by linguistic ignorance. Brain development is more receptive to language acquistion before puberty. Schools who motivate students to learn foreign languages early are an asset to world socialization efforts and peace.
19. Failing Our Children: No Child Left Behind Undermines Quality and Equity in Education, Lisa Guisbond and Monty Neill, The Clearing House, September/October 2004
The authors argue that the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) education act needs to be revised. They contend that the NCLB uses test, threats, and punishments. In order to achieve quality and equity, schools need more funding, cultural participation, peer supports, and positive reinforcements. A focus on brain development, memory, personality, and real learning could improve assessment and accountablity.
20. High Stakes Are for Tomatoes , Peter Schrag, The Atlantic Monthly, August 2000
This article raises questions about the widespread use of assessment tests to judge the performance of students and schools. The frenzy for higher performance and accountability is shackling creative teaching, driving out good teachers, and creating undue student stress. Are tests culturally biased? Will a testing backlash lower educational standards?
UNIT 4. Development during Childhood: Family and Culture
Part A. Family
21. Raising Happy Achieving Children in the New Millennium, Alice Sterling Honig, Early Child Development and Care, Volume 163, 2000
This article i
s packed with excellent advice on care that creates self-esteem and emotionally happy and cognitively achieving children. Alice Honig stresses the need to educate parents early, even before the birth of their child, especially if parents have experienced depression, drug abuse, or family violence. Family aids must be sensitive to different cultures.
22. When Safety Is the Name of the Game, David Noonan, Newsweek, September 22, 2003
Organized sports provide exercise and improve the physical status of children and adolescents. Sports injuries, however, are a major health issues. Emotions rise in competition. Coaches and referees may tolerate violence and aggression. Parents can reduce risks by pressuring schools for safety education and athletic trainers.
23. The Blank Slate, Steven Pinker, Discover, October 2002
The author argues that family socialization and cultural constructs interact with genetics (talents, temperament) to create unique humans. It is hypocrisy to blame parenting, or schools, or peers, or television for all behaviors. Children have some inherited traits; they are not blank slates. Social progress can be made by reinforcing good traits and teaching control of bad ones.
24. The Power of No, Peg Tyre, Julie Scelfo, and Barbara Kantrowitz, Newsweek, September 13, 2004
Parents struggle to educate children and adolescents on the fact that happiness is not dependent on owning things. Overindulgence and a sense of entitlement contribute to poor emotional control and self-absorption. Learning to overcome challenges leads to self-esteem, a moral work-ethic, and better mental health. Families spoil children with too few limits, not by saying no.
25. Parents Behaving Badly, Nancy Gibbs, Time, February 21, 2005
Families want the best for their children, but often socialize them badly with educational interference. Parents defend cheating, lower motivation by expecting too much (or too little), and blame teachers for emotional upsets. The author describes hovering helicopter parents whose children have no self-reliance, and culture barriers which keep some parents away from schools. Both have negative consequences.
Part B. Culture
26. Parents or Pop Culture? Children s Heroes and Role Models, Kristin J. Anderson and Donna Cavallaro, Childhood Education, Spring 2002
Women and minority cultures are underrepresented by prime time television. Men are portrayed as important, angry, and often violent. Likewise, comic books show exaggerated male aggression and underrepresent women and minorities as heroes. Research demostrates that children s play mimics these stereotypes. Parents impact is more important, but families need to limit exposure to some steroretypes.
27. Brown v. Board: A Dream Deferred, Ellis Cose, Newsweek, May 17, 2004
Cultural differences still exist in American education, according to Ellis Cose. The schooling of children and adolescents from African- and Hispanic-American families is not equal, nor are school resources equivalent. The anxiety and stress of minority learners will be lessened if we give them the same benefits we give upper-middle-class white students.
UNIT 5. Development During Adolescence and Young Adulthood
Part A. Adolescence
28. What Makes Teens Tick, Claudia Wallis, Time, May 10, 2004
The cognition and brain development of adolescents as revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies can account for memory, emotions, motivation, self-esteem, anxiety, depression, drug abuse, and sex. Brain structural changes are initiated by puberty homones. Final maturation does not occur until about age 25. Both genes and environment affect physical changes in grey and white matter.
29. A Peaceful Adolescence, Barbara Kantrowitz and Karen Springen, Newsweek, April 25, 2005
This article presents evidence that, despite raging hormones, adolescents and families can have a peaceful friendship. A longitudinal study has identified socialization practices that unite parents and teens against peer pressures and cultural temptations. Moral and ethical character are modeled from caring, competent, connected, and confident adults.
30. Hello to College Joys: Keep Stress Off Campus, Jane E. Brody, The New York Times, August 26, 2003
Adolescents at schools away from home face new challenges: sex, drugs, grades, and paying bills. The best time of their lives becomes a time of anxiety, emotional stress, and depression. Mental health services are necessary for many students. Jane Brody gives many creative solutions for college students problems.
Part B. Young Adulthood
31. How Spirit Blooms, Suzanne Clores, Body and Soul, September 2004
The author reports her young adulthood identity quest, linked to career stress and cognition. This article gives an overview of Wicca, Yoga, Sufism, Shamanism, Buddhism, and Voodoo, and discusses the culture of spirituality, shared by 84% of Americans. Recent genetic research suggests we inherit a predisposition to seek a higher power and moral guide. A self-transcendence scale allows the reader to explore his/her feelings of connectedness to the larger universe.
32. The Battle for Your Brain, Ronald Bailey, Reason, February 2003
Neuroscience may soon provide ways to manipulate our brains. New drugs may improve memory, boost cognition, and fine-tune our emotions. Will these future enhancements be ethical? Ronald Bailey addresses this question and gives eight objections voiced by neuroethicists.
UNIT 6. Development during Middle and Late Adulthood
Part A. Middle Adulthood
33. Emotions and the Brain: Laughter, Steven Johnson, Discover, April 2003
A primitive part of the human brain, the brainstem, prompts laugher. Tickling in sexually private or guarded regions (e.g., groin, waist, throat) is registered in another ancient region, the somatosensory cortex. We laugh as a form of instinctive social attachment, especially in childhood. We re often not aware that we re laughing, but our laughter is contagious and helps bond friendships and improve health.
34. Alcohol s Deadly Triple Threat, Karen Springen and Barbara Kantrowitz, Newsweek, May 10, 2004
Socialized gender differences exist in alcohol abuse. Men drink openly. Women drink in secret to ease stress and anxiety. Drinking in adulthood can contribute to divorce, health problems, and death. Pregnant women who drink also impair prenatal brain development and contribute to birth defects.
35. Blowing a Gasket, Jeffrey Kluger, Time, December 6, 2004
Experts estimate that one-third of adult Americans have high blood pressure (hypertension), a serious threat to physical status and health. Men, especially those from minority cultures who are overweight, smoke, drink, and have a family history of hypertension suffer most. The end games are usually heart disease and/or stroke. Stress reduction, exercise, better nutrition, and medicine can help reduce the risks.
36. 12 Things You Must Know to Survive and Thrive in America, Ellis Cose, Newsweek, January 28, 2002
This article targets minority men in American culture with career concerns. Personal advice is given on race, education, motivation to achieve, choosing friends, keeping high expectations, and having faith in oneself. Ellis Cose also discusses family fidelity love and care for wife and children.
Part B. Late Adulthood
37. Aging s Changing Face, Willow Lawson, Psychology Today, July/August 2003
Aging adults are increasingly returning to education after retirement. Some have the physical status to run triathlons. Willow Lawson reports that optimism contributes to better health, improved memory, and enjoyment of sex. Exercise as well as an upbeat outlook can also reduce depression.
38. Secrets of the Centenarians, Maya Pines, HHMI Bulletin, Spring 2004
Centenarians, over 100 and aging well, have positive emotions, gregarious personalities, good memory and cognition, and remain independent. Researchers have found genetic materials which contribute to this vigor. The health and physical status of many centenarians resemble people 30 years younger.
39. How to Land on Your Feet, Jane Bryant Quinn, Newsweek, February 14, 2005
The author suggests that all aging adults need an education about retirement. Knowledge about health benefits, resources, pensions, and investments are a few necessary lessons. Marriage makes retirement easier. Spouselessness is difficult, especially for women. Ms. Quinn recommends using a financial planner in order to land on your feet at your career s end.
40. Navigating Practical Dilemmas in Terminal Care, Helen Sorenson, Emphysema/COPD: The Journal of Patient Centered Care, Winter 2004
Our physical status is more decline (after adolescence) than incline. Aging is universal, and death is inevitable. Helen Sorenson addresses the ethics and morality issues of terminal care. Trust and good communication are essential when preparing advance care directives. Each of us has choices to make about our own deaths.