Titel: Language and Logic in the Post-Medieval Period
Autor/en: E. J. Ashworth
'Synthese Historical Library'.
30. September 1974 - gebunden - 330 Seiten
Keckermann remarked of the sixteenth century, "never from the begin ning of the world was there a period so keen on logic, or in which more books on logic were produced and studies oflogic flourished more abun dantly than the period-in which we live. " 1 But despite the great profusion of books to which he refers, and despite the dominant position occupied by logic in the educational system of the fifteenth, sixteenth and seven teenth centuries, very little work has been done on the logic of the post medieval period. The only complete study is that of Risse, whose account, while historically exhaustive, pays little attention to the actual logical 2 doctrines discussed. Otherwise, one can tum to Vasoli for a study of humanism, to Munoz Delgado for scholastic logic in Spain, and to Gilbert and Randall for scientific method, but this still leaves vast areas untouched. In this book I cannot hope to remedy all the deficiencies of previous studies, for to survey the literature alone would take a life-time. As a result I have limited myself in various ways. In the first place, I con centrate only on those matters which are of particular interest to me, namely theories of meaning and reference, and formal logic.
I/Historical Introduction.- 1. The Publication of Medieval Works.- 2. Scholasticism in Italy and Germany.- 3. Scholasticism in France and Spain.- 4. Humanism.- 5. Rudolph Agricola and His Influence.- 6. Petrus Ramus and His Influence.- 7. Seventeenth Century Logic: Eclecticism.- 8. Humanism and Late Scholasticism in Spain.- 9. Other Schools of Logic.- 10. A Note on Terminology.- II/Meaning and Reference.- I. The Nature of Logic.- 1. The Contents of Logical Text-books.- 2. The Definition of Logic.- 3. The Object of Logic.- II. Problems of Language.- 1. Terms: Their Definition and Their Main Divisions.- 2. The Relationship between Mental, Spoken and Written Terms.- 3. Other Divisions of Terms.- 4. Sense and Reference.- 5. Propositions and Their Parts.- 6. Sentence-Types and Sentence-Tokens.- 7. Complex Signifiables and Truth.- 8. Other Approaches to Truth.- 9. Possibility and Necessity.- II. Supposition Theory.- 1. Supposition, Acceptance and Verification.- 2. Proper, Improper, Relative and Absolute Supposition.- 3. Material Supposition.- 4. Simple Supposition.- 5. Natural Personal Supposition.- 6. Ampliation.- 7. Appellation.- III. Semantic Paradoxes.- 1. Problems Arising from Self-Reference.- 2. Solution One: Self-Reference Is Illegitimate.- 3. Solution Two: All Propositions Imply Their Own Truth.- 4. Solution Three: Insolubles Assert Their Own Falsity.- 5. Solution Four: Two Kinds of Meaning.- 6. Solution Five: Two Truth-Conditions.- 7. Later Writing on Insolubles.- III/Formal Logic. Part One: Unanalyzed Propositions.- I. The Theory of Consequence.- 1. The Definition of Consequence.- 2. The Definition of Valid Consequence.- 3. Formal and Material Consequence.- 4. 'Ut Nunc' Consequence.- 5. The Paradoxes of Strict Implication.- 6. Rules of Valid Consequence.- II. Propositional Connectives.- 1. Compound Propositions in General.- 2. Conditional Propositions.- 3A. Rules for Illative Conditionals.- 3B. Rules for Promissory Conditionals.- 4. Biconditionals.- 5. Conjunctions.- 6. Disjunctions.- 7. De Morgan's Laws.- 8. Other Propositional Connectives.- III. An Analysis of the Rules Found in Some Individual Authors.- 1. Paris in the Early Sixteenth Century.- 2. Oxford in the Early Sixteenth Century.- 3. Germany in the Early Sixteenth Century.- 4. Spain in the Third Decade of the Sixteenth Century.- 5. Spain in the Second Part of the Sixteenth Century.- 6. Germany in the Early Seventeenth Century.- IV/ Formal Logic. Part Two: The Logic of Analyzed Propositions.- I. The Relationships Between Propositions.- 1. The Quality and Quantity of Propositions.- 2. Opposition.- 3. Equipollence.- 4. Simple and Accidental Conversion.- 5. Conversion by Contraposition.- II. Supposition Theory and Quantification.- 1. The Divisions of Personal Supposition.- 2. Descent and Ascent.- III. Categorical Syllogisms.- 1. Figures and Modes.- 2. How to Test the Validity of a Syllogism.- 3. Proof by Reduction.- 4. Syllogisms with Singular Terms.- Appendix/Latin Texts.- 1. Primary Sources.- 2. Secondary Sources on the History of Logic 1400-1650.- Index of names.