Titel: E-Infrastructures and E-Services on Developing Countries
Dateigröße in MByte: 3.
10. Mai 2010 - pdf eBook
The first edition of a conference is a significant organizational and scientific gamble. In some cases, these challenges are rewarded by results well above the initial expec- tions. AFRICOMM 2009, the First International ICST Conference on e-Infrastructure and e-Services for Developing Countries, was clearly one of such cases. The conference aimed at bringing together international researchers, public of- cers, policy makers and practitioners in ICT to discuss issues and trends, recent research, innovation advances, and on-the-field experiences related to e-Government, e-Governance, e-Infrastructure, and e-Business, with a focus on developing countries. It is in fact widely accepted that ICT Infrastructure and (e-*)services are key drivers for development, well-being, and improved quality of life. This was also highlighted by Kofi Annan, former UN General Secretary, in 2002: "While ICT cannot address all of [Africa's] problems, they can do much to place Africa on a firmer industrial footing. . . and strengthen the continent's human resources, with training that leads to sustainable livelihoods. " AFRICOMM 2009 was organized in three tracks: two of them organized as Research Tracks, on Information and Communication Infrastructures and on e- Services for Developing Countries, and one Policy and Governance Track. Contri- tions to the first two tracks were selected by peer-review, while the policies session involved key stakeholders in the areas of ICT, development, and policy making who submitted position papers. Participation and selection of papers for the tracks was quite good.
1;Title Page;2 2;Preface;5 3;Organization;7 4;Table of Contents;10 5;Fostering Learning through the Use of Argumentative Serious Games;12 5.1;Introduction;12 5.2;Related Work;13 5.3;Serious Games;15 5.3.1;Argumentative Serious Games;15 5.3.2;Educational and COTS Serious Games;16 5.3.3;Serious Game Features;17 5.4;Use of Serious Games in Formal Educational Settings;18 5.5;Conclusion and Future Work;19 5.6;References;20 6;Using Cell Phones to Improve Language Skills: The Hadeda Project;22 6.1;Introduction;22 6.2;The Landscape;23 6.3;Overall Design of Hadeda;23 6.4;Internet Website;24 6.5;Java Midlet;25 6.6;Connectivity, Airtime and Costs;26 6.7;Ethics and Safety;26 6.8;Educational Issues;26 6.9;Indigenous Voices;27 6.10;Pilots;28 6.11;Conclusion;29 6.12;The Way Forward;29 6.13;References;29 7;Mobile Learning Content Authoring Tools (MLCATs): A Systematic Review;31 7.1;Introduction;31 7.2;Procedure;32 7.2.1;Classification of MLCAT Articles by Publication Year;33 7.3;Classification Framework;33 7.4;Results of Classification;35 7.5;Summary and Conclusions;37 7.6;References;38 8;A Rural Implementation of a 52 Node Mixed Wireless Mesh Network in Macha, Zambia;43 8.1;Introduction;43 8.2;Network Description;44 8.2.1;Performance Conclusions;46 8.2.2;Training;48 8.2.3;Challenges;48 8.3;Future Work;49 8.4;Conclusions;49 8.5;References;50 9;e-Justice Implementation at a National Scale: The Ugandan Case;51 9.1;Introduction;51 9.2;e-Justice and e-Government;52 9.2.1;e-Government;53 9.2.2;e-Justice;53 9.3;The Uganda e-Justice and e-Government Case;54 9.3.1;ICT Implementations towards e-Government;54 9.3.2;ICT Implementations towards e-Justice;55 9.3.3;SWOT Analysis;56 9.4;The e-Justice Solution and Framework;57 9.4.1;The e-Justice Solution;57 9.4.2;Proposed Framework of Implementing e-Justice;58 9.5;Conclusion;59 9.6;References;60 10;Supporting Public Administration with an Integrated BPR Environment;61 10.1;Introduction;61 10.2;Challenges of ICT-Supported PA;62 10.3;Framework for
Supporting PA;63 10.4;System Description;64 10.4.1;Intermediate Representation of Model Elements;64 10.4.2;System Components;65 10.5;Case Study;66 10.6;Related Work;68 10.7;Conclusion and Future Work;68 10.8;References;69 11;SAMBA Project Experiences;71 11.1;Introduction;71 11.2;Initial Situation;71 11.2.1;Location;71 11.2.2;Technology Background;72 11.2.3;Local Technical Environment;72 11.3;Project Goals;73 11.4;Application Selection;74 11.5;Application Development;75 11.6;Content Creation;77 11.6.1;RSS Feeds;77 11.6.2;Local Content Providers;77 11.6.3;User Created Content;77 11.6.4;User Training;78 11.7;Lessons Learned;78 11.7.1;Lack of Keyboard;79 11.7.2;MHP;79 11.7.3;Limited Internet;79 11.8;References;80 12;E-Voting: A South African Perspective;81 12.1;Introduction;81 12.2;Background on the South African Electoral System;82 12.3;Electoral System Characteristics;83 12.4;Background on Electronic Voting Systems;84 12.4.1;Punch Card Voting Systems;84 12.4.2;Direct Record Voting Systems;85 12.4.3;Optical Scan Voting Systems;85 12.4.4;Internet Voting System;85 12.5;Electronic Voting Characteristics;86 12.6;Conclusion;87 12.7;References;87 13;BoulSat Project:Low-Cost Wireless Metropolitan Network Implementation in Burkina Faso;89 13.1;Introduction;89 13.1.1;Need of Telecommunications in the Context Scenario;90 13.2;Materials and Methods;90 13.2.1;The Poor WLAN;91 13.2.2;The Wireless Transmitters;92 13.2.3;Home-Made Cantenna;92 13.2.4;Low-Cost Antenna Mast;94 13.2.5;Network Implementation;95 13.3;Results, Discussion and Future Developments;96 13.4;References;96 14;Telemedicine as a Tool for Europe-Africa Cooperation: A Practical Experience;97 14.1;Introduction;97 14.2;Chronology;99 14.3;Technology Description;100 14.4;Methodology;101 14.5;Results;102 14.6;Conclusions and Final Remarks;104 14.7;References;105 15;Implementing Mobile Phone Solutions for Health in Resource Constrained Areas: Understanding the Opportunities and Challenges;106 15.1;Introduction;106 15.2;The
Research Study;107 15.3;Literature Review;107 15.4;Conceptual Background;107 15.4.1;Information Infrastructure Theory;108 15.5;The Case Study;108 15.5.1;Mobile Phone Communication Setup and Management;108 15.5.2;Current Use of Mobile Phones;108 15.5.3;Challenges Being Faced;109 15.6;Discussion;111 15.6.1;Influence of Use Context (Installed Base) on Mobile Phone Use;111 15.6.2;Application-Centric Opportunities and Challenges: Paradoxes of Mobile Phone Use;112 15.7;Conclusion;114 15.8;References;114 16;Application of Geographic Information System (GIS) in Drug Logistics Management Information System (LMIS) at District Level in Malawi: Opportunities and Challenges;116 16.1;Introduction;116 16.2;Literature Review and Theoretical Framework;117 16.2.1;Challenges in Implementation of GIS;117 16.2.2;Drug LMIS as Installed Base for the GIS;118 16.3;Methodology;118 16.4;Findings;119 16.4.1;The Drug LMIS;119 16.4.2;The Proposed GIS;120 16.5;Opportunities and Challenges;122 16.5.1;Opportunities and Challenges on Standards and Data Integration;122 16.5.2;Opportunities and Challenges on Organisation;123 16.5.3;Opportunities and Challenges on Technology;125 16.6;Conclusion;126 16.7;References;126 17;Converged Infrastructure for Emerging Regions - A Research Agenda;127 17.1;Motivation and Concept;127 17.2;Vision and Challenges;128 17.3;Example;130 17.4;Relevant Work;131 17.5;Objectives and Outcome;132 17.5.1;To Develop a Novel Adaptive Modulation and Coding Scheme to Optimize Energy Consumption;132 17.5.2;To Develop Smart Beamforming Antennas to Optimize Energy Consumption;133 17.5.3;To Design a Cross-Layer Architecture to Support Message Forwarding Mechanisms in Order to Optimize Power Consumption and Content Delivery;133 17.5.4;To Develop a Network Monitoring System and Cognitive Self-configuration and Self-management Mechanisms to Cope with the Unreliability of the Environment of Emerging Regions;133 17.5.5;To Create a Converged Infrastructure to Improve the Use of Different Ava
ilable Wireless Network Access Means;134 17.6;First Steps towards a Solution;134 17.7;Conclusions;135 17.8;References;136 18;Author Index;137
"Using Cell Phones to Improve Language Skills: The Hadeda Project (p. 11-12)
Abstract. Language skills are essential for education and economic development. Many countries (especially in Africa) have more than one official language and even more unofficial languages. Being able to express oneself effectively in the written word is required for tertiary education. Unfortunately, cell phones are often blamed for the degradation of language skills. There have been many studies blaming cell phone usage and instant messaging as being responsible for the the lack of language skills of children, teenagers, and young adults. Hadeda is a facility where teachers and parents can create spelling lists for pupils and children using either a cell phone or an internet based workstation. Hadeda then generates a fun and enjoyable cell phone midlet (computer program) which pupils and children can download onto their personal cell phone. Hadeda pronounces the words with electronic voices and the pupils and children can then practice their spelling on a medium they enjoy.
Keywords: cell phone, spelling, language.
Language skills are essential for economic development. It has been shown that language skills have a direct impact on the employment and earning capabilities of individuals. This has been shown to be true in English and non-English speaking countries and in both first world and third world countries. Unfortunately, the cell phone has been blamed for the degradation of language skills. Teachers have lamented the lack of spelling skills with pupils who use cell phones, SMS (often called texting in some English-speaking countries), and instant messaging. Hadeda is an attempt to use the cell phone to help improve language skills. It is a facility which allows teachers and parents to create spelling lists in more than
one human language.
Hadeda then generates audio clips for the spelling words and packages them into a downloadable cell phone application (or midlet). The pupils and children can then download the midlet onto their own phone and practice their spelling. Hadeda is named after the Hadeda Ibis bird which is found throughout the grasslands and savannas of Africa. It is a raucous, noisy bird making a distinctive haahaa- haa-haaa-de-da sound. The name is appropriate for a cell phone application or midlet which makes lots of noise.
2 The Landscape
The cell phone is seen everywhere in Africa. Reports vary as to cell phone penetration on the African continent. The fact that cell phones are shared within a family, however, support the allegation that penetration is high. Quality education, skilled teachers, school rooms, textbooks, paper and pencils, however, are not ubiquitous in Africa. The question we originally asked was “Can the cell phone be used effectively in education?” Previous work we had done in using cell phones and mobile instant messaging to assist in mathematics education was successful and encouraged us to now look at the potential use of cell phones in language education. South Africa has a foot in both the first world and the third world – as does the rest of Africa.
Teachers in private schools and government schools in middle class suburbs complain that cell phone spelling and instant messaging are destroying the English Language. While at the same time, pupils in rural schools often do not have competent English teachers. Yet in both environments, the private school and the rural school, cell phones could be found. Although the cell phone is everywhere, the capabilities of the cell phones vary. If Hadeda is to be successful, it must take into account the wide range of facilities offered on cell phones.
3 Overall Design of Hadeda
Hadeda consists of two major sections. The first section is an internet website designed so that it can easily be accessed on a cell phone using either the cell phone browser or Opera Mini. This internet website allows teachers and parents to type in a list of spelling words. The website will then generate audio files of the words using an electronic voice. It will then package the electronic voices with the classes of a Java midlet and publish the midlet or Java application on the internet. The second section of Hadeda is the Java midlet itself. The pupils will then download the Java midlet onto their personal (or their family) cell phone. The midlet will then speak to them their spelling words and the pupils or children will have to type in the spelling words on the cell phone keypad. Correct spelling will reward the pupils or children with a recording of the Hadeda shouting haa-haa-haa-haaa-de-da. Figure 1 shows a pictorial description of Hadeda."
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