Titel: History of Psychiatry and Medical Psychology
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13. April 2010 - pdf eBook
This book chronicles the conceptual and methodological facets of psychiatry and medical psychology throughout history. There are no recent books covering so wide a time span. Many of the facets covered are pertinent to issues in general medicine, psychiatry, psychoanalysis, and the social sciences today. The divergent emphases and interpretations among some of the contributors point to the necessity for further exploration and analysis.
Contents.- Acknowledgments.- Preface.- Introduction: Synopsis and Overview.- Contributors.- Section One: Prolegomenon.-
Chapter 1. Historiography: Philosophy and Methodology of History, with Special Emphasis on Medicine and Psychiatry; and an Appendix on 'Historiography' as the History of History.-
Chapter 2. Contextualizing the History of Psychiatry: Annotated Bibliography and Essays: Addenda A-F.- Section Two: Periods.- Proto-Psychiatry.-
Chapter 3. Mind and Madness in Classical Antiquity.-
Chapter 4. Mental Disturbances, Unusual Mental States, and Their Interpretation during the Middle Ages.-
Chapter 5. Renaissance Conceptions and Treatments of Madness.-
Chapter 6. The Madman in the Light of Reason, Enlightenment Psychiatry: Part I. Custody, Therapy, Theory, and the Need for Reform.- The Growth of Psychiatry as a Medical Specialty.-
Chapter 7. Part II Alienists, Treatises, and the Psychologic Approach in the Era of Pinel.-
Chapter 8. Philippe Pinel in the 21st Century: The Myth and the Message.-
Chapter 9. German Romantic Psychiatry: Part I. Earlier, Including More-Psychological Orientations.-
Chapter 10. German Romantic Psychiatry: Part II. Later, Including More-Somatic Orientations.-
Chapter 11. Descriptive Psychiatry and Psychiatric Nosology during the Nineteenth Century.-
Chapter 12. Biological Psychiatry in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries.-
Chapter 13. The Intersection of Psychopharmacology and Psychiatry in the Second Half of the Twentieth Century.- Section Three: Concepts and Topics.- Concepts.-
Chapter 14. A History of Melancholia and Depression.-
Chapter 15. Constructing Schizophrenia as a Category of Mental Illness.-
Chapter 16. The Concept of Psychosomatic Medicine.- Topics.-
Chapter 17. Neurology's Influence on American Psychiatry: 1865-1915.-
Chapter 18. The Transformation of American Psychiatry: From Institution To Community, 1800-1950.-
Chapter 19. The Transition to Secular Psychotherapy: Hypnosis and the Paradigm of Alternate Consciousness.-
Chapter 20. Psychoanalysis in Central Europe: The Interplay of Psychoanalysis And Culture.-
Chapter 21. The Psychoanalytic Movement in the United States, 1906-1991.-
Chapter 22. The Development of Clinical Psychology, Social Work, and Psychiatric Nursing: 1900-1980's.- Epilogue: Psychiatry and the Mind-Body Relation.-
Chapter 23. Thoughts Toward a Critique of Biological Psychiatry.-
Chapter 24. Two "Mind"-"Body" Models for a Holistic Psychiatry.-
Chapter 25. Freud on "Mind"-"Body" I. The Neurobiological and "Instinctualist" Stance; with Implications for Chapter 24, and with Two Postscripts.-
Chapter 26. Freud on "Mind"-"Body" II: Drive, Motivation, Meaning, History, and Freud's Psychological Heuristic; with Clinical and Everyday Examples.-
Chapter 27. Psychosomatic Medicine and the Mind-Body Relation: Philosophical, Scientific, and Clinical Perspectives
Edwin Wallace IV, M.D., is Professor of Psychiatry and Research Professor of Bioethics at the University of South Carolina. Until 1995 he was Professor and Vice Chairman of the Department of Psychiatry and Health Behavior at the Medical College of Georgia. In 1984 he published Historiography and Causation in Psychoanalysis (Analytic Press) and is generally regarded as an expert on the history of psychiatry and medical psychology. Dr. Wallace is a cofounder of the Association for the Advancement of Philosophy and Psychiatry (a 1200-member international organization that publishes a quarterly journal Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology with Johns Hopkins University Press).John Gach is owner and president of John Gach Books, Inc., an antiquarian bookselling firm that has specialized in rare and out-of-print psychiatry, psychoanalysis, psychology, and neuroscience for 35 years. Regarded as a leading authority on the bibliography of books in the fields his firm deals in, Gach has published a number of review essays in journals such as the Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, and a chapter in Essays in the History of Psychiatry, edited by Edwin Wallace and Lucius Pressley. Most recently he edited for Thoemmes Press the series Foundations of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, which reprinted both the eighth German edition of Emil Kraepelin's Psychiatrie and the five Kraepelin titles published in English during his lifetime. He has also been engaged in a long term project to describe and comprehend the phenomenology of book collecting, about which topic he has lectured.
"Section Two Periods Chapter 3 Mind and Madness in Classical Antiquity (p. 175)
The history of psychiatry in Greek and Roman antiquity is the frame story for the history of psychiatry in the Western world as well as the history of that topic in a particular era and in particular places. That is, it is not only one current in the stream that becomes modern psychiatry, but it is also the caput Nili, “the head of the Nile.” The terminology, categories, and core ways of thinking about mind and its derangements that evolved in ancient Greece have left an indelible stamp on all subsequent thinking about these topics. The distinction between rational and irrational, the notion of an internal mental life, and the notion of psychic conflict and that psychic conflicts can be categorized, classified, studied, and systematically influenced are all legacies from classical Greece.
The notion of the body as a system, as a balance, as a mechanism, as a hierarchy of organs, or as a parliament of organs—these underlie the medical models that arose from the fifth century B.C.E. onwards. Furthermore, the Greeks developed the idea that it is possible to understand how balances and imbalances among organs and body constituents influence mind and madness, how one central organ (at first believed to be the heart, but later the brain) is the organ of mental operations, and that that organ mediates influences from the outside world and from the internal world of the body.
The articulation of a concept of body and a concept of mind and the realization that if the person is thus divided there is a need to find a way of conceptualizing the unity are Greek “discoveries” or presuppositions that have left a permanent mark on our thinking about thinking.1 It is also apparent that much of the vocabulary of Western psych
iatry is taken literally from Greek and Roman sources, and that new coinages (e.g., “psychotherapy”) drew heavily upon Greek and Roman words, often subtly importing the conceptual complexity of the ancient world into the modern way of thinking.
Mania, delirium, libido, melancholy, emotion, hysteria, passion, paranoia, and hypochondriasis are but some of the many terms taken more or less literally from the ancient languages and categories of thinking. In previous work,2 I have applied a particular schema to the history of psychiatry in classical Greek antiquity, a schema that is in part shaped organically by the historical material and in part by conceptual models within modern psychiatry.
The schema posits three models of mind and mental illness: (1) poetic models, principally in Homer and the Greek tragedies; (2) philosophical models, principally those of Plato; and (3) medical models. The poetic model presumes a relatively open boundary or “field of forces” as the main feature of the mind of the person. That is, the heroes and protagonists of epics and, to a lesser degree, of tragedies are represented as having unusual mental states inserted into them or inflicted upon them by an outside agency, typically a divinity. In the epics, many mental states and thoughts are depicted as thus induced by a divinity, while in the tragic dramas, it is mostly extreme states, such as madness, that are so induced. In Homer’s Odyssey, (23:5 ff)"
From the reviews:
"The main audience for this new book is educators who want to be good scholars of intellectual history; the remaining readers are those who just want to deeply understand how present concepts of the mind were invented. This book, written ill a language of a high but approachable erudition, could serve as a knowledgeable guide to all of them in their journeys to a different level of understanding about how psychiatry actually works and thinks as a discipline. ... I enthusiastically recommend History of Psychiatry and Medical Psychology-it is refreshingly self-aware, an enjoyable read, and could provide hours of material for seminars with students to remind them of Santayana's mordant warning that those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it." (Antolin C. Trinidad, MD, George Washington University, Washington, DC, JAMA, February 18, 2009-Vo1. 301, No. 7)
"History of Psychiatry and Medical Psychology is one of the largest edited volumes on the history of psychiatry ... . The chapters cover the history of psychiatry in the United States, France, Germany, and ... the United Kingdom. ... a contribution that can help students and physicians to become acquainted with that history. ... For a reader who seeks a convenient overview of research in the history of psychiatry conducted during the last two decades, this volume could be handy." (Hans Pols, ISIS, Vol. 100 (2), 2009)
"It devotes a substantial amount of space to a prolegomenon; an introductory chapter to the historical and methodological concerns, and adds an extremely useful and comprehensive annotated bibliography. ... would be worthy of publication in its own right, and its value is all the greater for the way in way in which it contextualizes the rest of the book. ... It places the philosophy of psychiatry centrally in both the practice and academic worlds ... . It is a very fine book." (Mark Welch, Metapsychology Online Reviews, September, 2009)
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