Titel: Physics With Illustrative Examples From Medicine and Biology
Autor/en: George B. Benedek, Felix M. H. Villars, I. M. London
'Biological Physics Series'.
2nd ed. 2000.
Springer New York
9. Juni 2000 - gebunden - 578 Seiten
A reissue of a classic book, corrected, edited, and typeset, to be published in the Biological Physics Series. Intended for undergraduate courses in biophysics, biological physics, physiology, medical physics, and biomedical engineering, this book is an introduction to mechanics with examples and problems from the medical and biological sciences. The book covers standard topics of kinematics, dynamics,statics, momentum, and feeedback, control and stability but with emphasis on physical and biological systems. Chapters include problems and references. The book can be used as a supplement to standard introductory physics courses, and as a text for medical schools, medical physics courses, and biology departments. The three volumes combined present all the major topics in physics. Originally published in 1974 from the authors's typescript, this reissue will be edited, corrected, typeset, the art redrawn, and an index added. These books are being reissued by Springer in the Biological Physics Series in response to frequent requests to provide these texts to satisfy the growing need among students and practitioners in the medical and biological sciences with a working knowledge of the physical sciences. The books are also in demand in physics departments either as supplements to traditional intro texts or as main text for those departments offering courses with biological or medical physics orientation. A solutions manual will be available.
1 Kinematics.- 1.1 Introduction.- 1.2 Motion in One Dimension: Velocity and Acceleration.- 1.2.A. Velocity.- 1.2.B. Acceleration.- 1.2.C. Examples of Accelerated Motion.- 1.3 Motion in Two and Three Dimensions: Velocity and Acceleration.- 1.3.A. Velocity.- 1.3.B. Acceleration.- 1.3.C. Uniform Circular Motion.- 1.3.D. Projectile Motion.- 1.4 Units and Conversion Factors.- Appendix to Chapter 1: Vectors.- 1.5 References and Supplementary Reading.- 1.6 Problems.- 2 Dynamics.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 Newton's First Law: The Law of Inertia.- 2.3 Newton's Second Law of Motion.- 2.4 Newton's Third Law of Motion: The Law of Action and Reaction.- 2.5 The Fundamental Forces of Physics.- 2.5.A. The Gravitational Force.- 2.5.B. Motion of a Satellite or the Moon Around the Earth.- 2.6 Nonfundamental or Derived Forces.- 2.6.A. Contact Forces.- 2.6.B. Drag Forces in Fluids (Liquids and Gases).- 2.7 Newton's Laws Applied to Problems in Dynamics.- 2.7.A. Introduction.- 2.7.B. Illustrative Examples.- (i) Freight Train.- (ii) Block on an Inclined Plane.- (iii) Harmonic Oscillation.- (iv) Spring Gun.- (v) Viscous Damping Force. The Exponential Function.- (vi) Air Drag and Terminal Velocity.- (vii) Damped Oscillation of a Pendulum.- (viii) The Centrifugal Pendulum.- 2.8 References and Supplementary Reading.- 2.9 Problems.- 3 Static Equilibrium and the Forces Acting on Muscles and Bone within the Human Body.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Conditions of Static Equilibrium.- 3.3 Applications of Statics.- 3.3.A. The Board Resting Against a Wall.- 3.3.B. Forces Acting at the Hip Joint.- (i) Elementary Anatomy of the Femur and Hip.- (ii) Calculation of the Force on the Head of the Femur and in the Hip Abductor Muscles.- (iii) Clinical and Anatomical Implications.- (iv) Effect of a Cane on the Forces Acting at the Hip Joint.- 3.3.C. Forces Acting on the Lumbar Vertebrae. Low Back Pain. Disease of Vertebral Discs.- (i) Elementary Anatomy of the Spine, Vertebrae, and Back Muscles.- (ii) Force on the Fifth Lumbar Vertebra on Bending and Lifting.- (iii) Shear Stress in the Lumbo-Sacral Disc with "Sway Back".- 3.3.D. Further Applications. Comments on the Torque Condition for Static Equilibrium.- 3.4 Static Equilibrium of Deformable Bodies: Stress, Strain, and Fracture.- 3.4.A. Introduction.- 3.4.B. Stress and Strain in Tension and Compression, Hooke's Law, Young's Modulus, Failure or Fracture.- 3.4.C. Bending Moment and Curvature of a Beam.- 3.4.D. Differential Equations for Deflection of a Loaded Beam.- 3.4.E. Bending and Breaking of a Beam or a Bone: Application to Fracture of the Tibia.- 3.4.F. Stress and Strain in Shear.- 3.5 Static Equilibrium of Fluids.- 3.5.A. Introduction and Definition of Hydrostatic Pressure.- 3.5.B. Fluid in a Gravitational Field: The Variation of Pressure with Height.- (i) Incompressible Fluid: Pascal's Law: Pressure Units.- (ii) Compressible Fluid: Ideal Gas.- (iii) Buoyant Force on Bodies Immersed in a Fluid.- 3.5.C. Physiologic Effects of Increased Fluid Pressure, Underwater Diving, Postural Effects on Blood Pressure, and Effect of High Acceleration.- (i) Underwater Diving.- (ii) Postural Effects on Blood Pressure.- (iii) Effect of High Acceleration.- 3.5.D. Physiologic Effects of Decrease of Air Pressure. Mountain Sickness; Balloon Ascensions, Physiology of the Storage and Delivery of Oxygen by the Blood.- (i) Mountain Sickness.- (ii) Balloon Ascensions and the Physiological Effects of Decreased Air Pressure.- (iii) Oxygen Storage and Delivery by the Blood, Mountain Sickness, and High-Altitude Anoxia.- (iv) High Altitude Air Travel: Cabin Pressurization.- 3.5.E. Buoyancy and the Measurement of Molecular Weight of Macromolecules.- 3.6 References and Supplementary Reading.- 3.7 Problems.- 4 Momentum.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Momentum and the Dynamics of a System of Many Particles.- 4.3 Motion of the Center of Mass of an Extended Body.- (i) Center of Mass of Two Bodies.- (ii) Center of Mass of a Right Triangle.- (iii) Experimental Determination of the Center of Mass.- 4.4 Conservation of Momentum.- 4.4.A. The Boy, the Ball, and the Boat.- 4.4.B. The Oscillator in a Box.- 4.5 Ballistocardiography.- 4.5.A. Introduction.- 4.5.B. Elementary Anatomy and Physiology of the Heart.- 4.5.C. The Ballistocardiogram.- 4.6 Impulse and the Change of Momentum.- 4.6.A. Introduction and Definition of Impulse.- 4.6.B. Forces Acting During Collisions: Illustrative Examples.- (i) The Driven Golf Ball.- (ii) The Falling Elevator and Bone Fracture.- (iii) Jumps or Falls to the Ground from a Height.- (iv) Tolerance Levels for Whole Body Impacts. Survival in Falls from a Great Height.- (v) Deceleration Pulses and the Severity Index: A Criterion for Concussion and Injury to the Brain.- (vi) Safety Considerations in Automobile Accidents.- 4.7 Flow of Mass and Momentum. Transport in Fluids.- 4.7.A. Current Density.- 4.7.B. Pressure Exerted by a Stream of Fluid.- 4.7.C. Pressure on the Walls of a Curved Hose: The Fire Hose and the Aorta.- 4.8 References and Supplementary Reading.- 4.9 Problems.- 5 Work and Energy.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 Work, Kinetic Energy, and Power in One-Dimensional Motion.- 5.2.A. A First Integration of Newton's Equation. The Work-Kinetic Energy Formula.- 5.2.B. Power and the Rate of Change of Kinetic Energy.- 5.2.C. Determination of x(t) Using Work-Energy Considerations.- 5.2.D. Conservative and Nonconservative Forces.- 5.2.E. Examples of One-Dimensional Motion in Simple Force Fields.- (i) Constant Force of Gravity.- (ii) Linear Restoring Force. The Harmonic Oscillator.- (iii) Motion in a Nonuniform Gravitational Field.- 5.2.F. Conservative Forces and the Conservation of Mechanical Energy.- 5.2.G. Nonconservative Forces; Power, and the Law of Conservation of Energy and Heat.- (i) Motion of a Body Falling Through a Viscous Liquid.- 5.2.H. Units and Conversion Factors.- 5.3 Work, Energy, and Power in Three Dimensions.- 5.3.A. The Work-Kinetic Energy Formula.- 5.3.B. Conservative and Constraint Forces and the Conservation of Mechanical Energy.- 5.3.C. Mechanical Examples. The Recoiling Block and Springboard Diving.- (i) The Recoiling Block.- (ii) Springboard Diving.- 5.3.D. Relation Between Force and Potential Energy- A Mathematical Note.- 5.3.E. Energy Diagrams and Mechanical Stability.- 5.4 The First Law of Thermodynamics.- 5.4.A. The Conservation of Mechanical Energy, External Work and Heat.- 5.4.B. Heat, Work, and Energy Changes in an Electrical Water Heater.- 5.4.C. Elements in the Historical Development of the Law of Conservation of Energy.- 5.4.D. Animal Metabolism, Work, and the First Law of Thermodynamics.- (i) Catabolic Rate, Heat and Power Production.- (ii) "Calorific Equivalent" of Oxygen.- (iii) Oxygen Consumption and Catabolic Rate for Various Activities-Basal Catabolism.- (iv) Mechanical Body Output, and Mechanical Efficiency of the Human Body.- 5.4.E. Basal Metabolism.- (i) Basal Metabolic Rate of Mammals: From the Mouse to the Elephant.- (ii) Energy Requirements of Various Body Organs.- 5.5 Rotational Motion.- (i) Kinetic Energy of the Rotating Body.- (ii) Work Done on the Rotating Body.- (iii) The Physical Pendulum.- 5.6 References and Supplementary Reading.- 5.7 Problems.- 6 Feedback, Control, and Stability in Physical and Biological Systems.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.1.A. Heat Engines, Power Production, and Automatic Control.- 6.1.B. Brief History of the Field of Automatic Control.- 6.1.C. Mechanics and Feedback and Control Theory.- 6.2 A Mechanical System Under Automatic Control.- 6.2.A. Description of the Overall Operation of the Steam Engine.- 6.2.B. Mathematical Model for the Operation of the Steam Engine-Without Automatic Control.- (i) Equation of Motion for the Engine Output Shaft.- (ii) Steady State Operating Speeds of the Engine. Effect of Changes in Pressure and Load.- (iii) Temporal Response of the Steam Engine to Changes in Steam Pressure and Load Torque.- 6.2.C. Quantitative Analysis of the Operation of the Steam Engine with Feedback Control from a Centrifugal Pendulum.- (i) Differential Equation of the Steam Engine- With the Centrifugal Governor Included.- (ii) Steady State Changes in Engine Output Angular Velocity Produced by Changes in Steam Pressure or Load Torque: The "Open Loop Gain".- (iii) Temporal Response of the Steam Engine Under Proportional Feedback Control to Changes in Steam Pressure.- 6.2.D. Instability in the Feedback and Control System of the Steam Engine.- (i) Response Time of the Centrifugal Pendulum (tg) and the Characteristic Time for Engine Speed Changes.- (ii) Qualitative Discussion of the Origin of Instability.- (iii) Quantitative Analysis of Instability in a Feedback-Control System.- 6.3 Temperature Control Using Feedback.- 6.3.A. Temperature of a Heated (or Cooled) System without Feedback (Open Loop Operation).- (i) Equation for Temperature of a System as a Function of Time.- (ii) Steady State Operating Temperature.- (iii) Transient Response to Changes in Ambient Temperature or Input Power.- 6.3.B. Temperature of a Heated (or Cooled) System with Feedback.- (i) On-Off Control System.- (ii) Proportional Control System.- (iii) Integral Control System.- 6.4 Control of Body Temperature.- 6.4.A. Body Temperature in Illness and in Health.- 6.4.B. Thermal Properties of the Human Body.- 6.4.C. The Control Elements for the Regulation of Body Temperature.- 6.5 Control of Blood Glucose Level.- 6.5.A. Introduction: Glucose Tolerance Test.- 6.5.B. Control Equation for Blood Glucose Concentration.- 6.5.C. Comparison Between Theory and the Experimentally Observed Glucose Tolerance Curve.- 6.6 References and Supplementary Reading.- 6.7 Problems.