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Structures of Knowing

Psychologies of the Nineteenth Century. 'Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science'. Auflage 1989. Book.…
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Some of the fundamental tenets of conventional economic wisdom, which have had a profound impact on public policy, are challenged in this book. These precepts include the affirmation that low wages are more beneficial that high wages to the proces … weiterlesen
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Titel: Structures of Knowing
Autor/en: Katherine Arens

ISBN: 0792300092
EAN: 9780792300090
Psychologies of the Nineteenth Century.
'Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science'.
Auflage 1989.
Sprache: Englisch.
Springer Netherlands

31. März 1989 - gebunden - 444 Seiten


Some of the fundamental tenets of conventional economic wisdom, which have had a profound impact on public policy, are challenged in this book. These precepts include the affirmation that low wages are more beneficial that high wages to the process of growth and development; convergence in terms of output per person is just a matter of time; minimum wage laws and trade unions negatively impact on the economy as a whole; pay inequality due to labor market discrimination cannot persist over time; larger firms are typically more efficient than smaller firms; and culture is of little consequence to the course of economic development. Such predictions, the author argues, are a product of unrealistic behavioral assumptions about the economic agent. In this book, the author offers a more inclusive theoretical framework and a more reasonable modeling of the economic agent. This new approach is built upon conventional neoclassical theory while incorporating the most recent research in behavioral economics. The case is made that individuals have some choice over the quantity and quality of effort which they can supply in the process of production. Even under the constraints of severe product market competition and the assumption of 'utility maximizing' individuals, effort need not be maximized, especially in firms characterized by antagonistic management-labor relations. This is especially true when relatively inefficient firms can remain competitive by keeping wages relatively low - low wages serve to protect such firms from more efficient firms. Alternatively, relatively high wage firms can remain competitive only if they become more productive. Under these assumptions, higher wages and factors contributing to higher wages can advance the performance of an economy while lower wages can have the opposite effect and cultural and institutional variables, by themselves, can affect the long run productivity and even the long run competitiveness of firms and economies. In summary, this book calls for a revised approach to the study of economics from a behavioral and socio-economic perspective, with significant consequences for public policy.


1: The Methodological Question.
- 1. The Case for a Reorientation in the History of Psychology.
- 1.1 Brozek's Typologies.
- 1.2 Watson: Prescription Versus Paradigm.
- 1.3 The Case for the Independent Science in the 1980's.
- 1.4 Documenting the Paradigm.
- 1.5 The Historical Canon: Eighteenth Century.
- 1.6 The Historical Canon: Nineteenth Century.
- 1.6.1 Experimental Physiologists and Psychophysicists.
- 1.6.2 Experimental Psychologists.
- 1.6.3 Act Psychology.
- 1.6.4 Experimental Psychologists: The Second Generation.
- 1.6.5 Psychological Technicians.
- 1.7 Implications.
- 2. Counterproposition: Psychology as Discourse.
- 2.1 The Post-Structuralist Example: Freud as Discourse.
- 2.2 The Outline for the Paradigm.-
2: The Paradigm of Conceptual Psychology.
- 3. Kant and Herbart: the Initiation of Conceptual Psychology.
- 3.1 The Position of Kant's Anthropology.
- 3.2 The Program of the Anthropology.
- 3.3 The Mind's "Capacities" and Their Relation to Knowledge.
- 3.4 From Kant to Herbart.
- 3.5 Herbart: Psychology as Science.
- 3.6 The Dynamic Model of the Capacities.
- 3.7 The Mathematics of Psychology.
- 3.8 Psychology and the Ego.
- 3.9 Conclusion.
- 4. Empiricism and Conceptual Psychology: Psychophysics and Philology.
- 4.1 Fechner and Psychophysics.
- 4.2 Richard Avenarius and "Pure Experience".
- 4.3 Wundt: Group Psychology and the Environment.
- 4.4 H. Paul and Language as Communication.
- 4.5 Conclusion.-
3: Case Studies.
- 5. Dilthey and Descriptive Psychology.
- 5.1 Dilthey's Psychology: Goal of the Discipline.
- 5.2 The Constitution of the Psyche.
- 5.3 The Development of the Psyche and Descriptive Psychology.
- 5.4 Conclusions.
- 6. Phenomenology and Conceptual Psychology.
- 6.1 Brentano's Psychology.
- 6.2 Laws of Mental Phenomena.
- 6.3 Brentano's Classifications of Mental Phenomena.
- 6.4 From Brentano to Husserl.
- 6.5 Husserl and Phenomenological Psychology.
- 6.6 The Subject and the Experiential World.
- 6.7 Phenomenology Versus Conceptual Psychology.
- 7. Mach's Psychology of Investigation and the Limits of Science.
- 7.1 Mach and His Public.
- 7.2 Sense Data and Physics: Fundaments of Psychology.
- 7.3 The "Psychology of the Senses": Preconditions and Operations.
- 7.4 Operations in the Sciences.
- 7.5 Position of "Knowledge and Error" with Respect to "Analysis of the Sensations".
- 7.6 Memory as the Ground for Conceptualization.
- 7.7 Knowledge and Error: Concepts and Validation.
- 7.8 Symbol Manipulation and Heuristics.
- 7.9 Investigation as Psychology.
- 7.10 Conclusion.
- 8. Freud: the Psychology of Psychoanalysis.
- 8.1 Phase 1: The Program of The Interpretation of Dreams.
- 8.1.1 The Material of Dreams.
- 8.1.2 The Morphology of the Dream.
- 8.1.3 The Syntax of Dreams.
- 8.1.4 The Syntax of the Psyche.
- 8.2 Phase 2: After Dreams: Freud's Science of Culture.
- 8.2.1 The Science of the Psyche.
- 8.2.2 Psychology Versus Psychoanalysis.
- 8.2.3 Psychology and the Sciences of Culture.
- 8.3 Freud and Conceptual Psychology.- Afterword: Some Consequences of Conceptual Psychology.- Notes.- Index of Names.
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