Titel: Power System Capacitors
Autor/en: Ramasamy Natarajan
408 equations; 95 Tables, black and white; 296 Illustrations, black and white.
Taylor & Francis Inc
30. März 2005 - gebunden - 576 Seiten
Since transmitting reactive power over long distances is not feasible, power factor correction capacitors are used to provide local reactive power compensation. This text provides engineers with a step-by-step approach to the fundamentals, capacitor applications, protection issues, and system impact based on practical installations involved in designing power system capacitors. The author describes the fundamentals of capacitors focused on the power factor correction, industry standards, capacitor specifications, protection of shunt capacitors, maintenance of capacitor banks, and system impact issues. This is a valuable tool for any power system engineer in industry, utilities, consulting, and practical power system evaluation.
INTRODUCTION History of Capacitors Capacitors for Power Industry Organization of the Book FUNDAMENTALS OF CAPACITORS Capacitance of Parallel Plates and Spheres Cylindrical Capacitors Energy Stored in a Capacitor Charging and Discharging of a Capacitor POWER FACTOR CONCEPTS The Power Factor The Synchronous Condenser INDUSTRY STANDARDS The Standard's Organizations Standards related to Capacitors CAPACITOR SPECIFICATIONS Type of Capacitor Units Specifications of the Capacitor Other Types of Capacitors TESTING OF CAPACITORS Design Tests Routine Tests Installation or Field Tests LOCATION OF SHUNT CAPACITORS Introduction Considerations in Locating Capacitors Considerations in Handling Substation Capacitors Shunt Capacitor Configurations Cables for Power Capacitors POWER FACTOR IMPROVEMENT Introduction Fixed Versus Switched Capacitors Application of Fixed and Switched Capacitors SYSTEM IMPACTS Reactive Power Support Voltage Profile Improvements Line and Transformer Loss Reductions Release of Power System Capacity Conclusions SERIES CAPACITORS Introduction Series Capacitors on Radial Feeders Series Capacitors for Transmission Lines Limitations of Series Capacitor Applications Other Series Capacitor Applications Conclusions SURGE CAPACITORS Introduction Insulation Withstand Strength Sources of Fast Front Surges The Protection System Capacitors for Circuit Breakers Conclusions CAPACITOR FOR MOTOR APPLICATIONS Introduction Reactive Power Requirements Additional Effects Due to Capacitors Selection of Capacitor Ratings Motor Starting and Related Issues CAPACITORS FOR OTHER APPLICATIONS Electric Arc Furnace Resistive Spot Welding Capacitors for Lighting Applications Capacitor Run Single Phase Motors Ferroresonant Transformer Applications Capacitors for Pulsed Power Supply Capacitors for EHV Applications Capacitors for Energy Storage STATIC VAR COMPENSATION Compensation Concepts Effect of Shunt Compensation Description of Static Var Compensators (SVC) Losses and Harmonics in the SVC Effect of SVC on Bulk Power Systems Conclusions PROTECTION OF SHUNT CAPACITORS Introduction Overcurrent Protection Protection Against Rack Failures Unbalance Protection Conclusions OVERCURRENT PROTECTION Type of Fusing Fuse for Capacitors Selection of Fuse Links Effects of Open Fuse Conclusions CIRCUIT BREAKERS Type of Circuit Breakers The Circuit Breaker Ratings Performance of the Circuit Breakers Circuit Breakers for Capacitance Switching Conclusions SURGE PROTECTION The Lightning Surge Type of Lightning Surges The Surge of Arresters Surge Arrester Characteristics Nature of Temporary Over Voltages Protective Coordination Conclusions MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLE SHOOTING Maintenance Trouble Shooting HARMONIC FILTERING Harmonic Sources System Response to Harmonics Acceptable Performance Harmonic Filters The System Response Considerations Filter Design Conclusions CAPACITANCE-TRANSFORMER TRANSIENTS The Transformer-Capacitor Energization Capacitor Switching and Transformer Transients Reducing the Voltage Transients Conclusions CAPACITOR SWITCHING Introduction Switching Transients Voltage Acceptance Criteria Insulation Coordination Conclusions INDUCED VOLTAGE IN CONTROL CABLES Introduction Sources of Induced Voltages Acceptable Induced Voltages Example System Calculation of Induced Voltages Effect of Lightning on Control Cables Conclusions ECONOMIC ANALYSIS Basis of Engineering Economics Cost Components Effect of Income Tax and Related Factors Economic Evaluations Conclusions BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIX A: CAPACITOR CIRCUIT FUNDAMENTALS APPENDIX B: DEFINITIONS APPENDIX C: CIRCUIT BREAKER DATA APPENDIX D: SURGE ARRESTER DATA APPENDIX E: FUSE CHARACTERISTICS
"One of this book's several virtues is that higher mathematics is resorted to only as necessary, with numerous worked examples amply demonstrating the calculations involved. Another is the extensive bibliographyall too often, users suppose that capacitors, as simple static devices, may safely be neglected. Dr. Natarajan strongly refutes that, offering a useful checklist of symptoms, diagnoses, and remediesthis book is a valuable reference as the only current work of its kind." - Electrical Apparatus, July 2005