Titel: Introduction to Ultra Wideband for Wireless Communications
Autor/en: Homayoun Nikookar, Ramjee Prasad
Dateigröße in MByte: 9.
11. Oktober 2008 - pdf eBook
Ultra Wideband (UWB) Technology is the cutting edge technology for wireless communications with a wide range of applications. In Introduction to Ultra Wideband for Wireless Communications UWB principles and technologies for wireless communications are explained clearly. Key issues such as UWB wireless channels, interference, signal processing as well as applications and standardization activities are addressed. Introduction to Ultra Wideband for Wireless Communications provides easy-to-understand material to (graduate) students and researchers working in the field of commercial UWB wireless communications. Problems at the end of each chapter extend the reader's understanding of the subject. Introduction to Ultra Wideband for Wireless Communications will also be useful for practicing engineers from industry who deal with the wireless systems that are designed and analyzed with the UWB technique.
1. Introduction. 1.1. History of UWB. 1.2. Preview of the Book. References.
2. UWB for Wireless Communications. 2.1. UWB definition. 2.2. FCC Mask. 2.3. UWB Features. 2.4. Summary. Problems. References.
3. UWB Antennas. 3.1. Antenna requirements. 3.2. Radiation mechanism of the UWB Antenna. 3.3. Link Budget for UWB system taking into account the UWB antennas. 3.4. Short Range Analysis of UWB Antennas. 3.5. Summary. Problems. References.
4. Ultra Wide band UWB Wireless Channels. 4.1. Impulse Response Modeling of UWB Wireless Channels. 4.2. Modified Impulse Response Method. 4.3. The IEEE UWB Channel Model. 4.4. Frequency Modeling of UWB Channels. 4.5. Comparison of Time and Frequency Models. 4.6. Summary. Problems. References.
5. UWB Interference. 5.1. An Example: IEEE802-11.a Interference. 5.2. General Method of Signal to Interference Ratio Calculation. 5.3. Interference of UWB to Existing OFDM System. 5.4. Interference of UWB to Narrowband systems. 5.5. Interference to WiMax. 5.6. Interference Reduction. 5.7. Interference Mitigation of Wideband system on UWB using Multicarrier Templates. 5.8. Summary. Problems. References
6. UWB Signal Processing. 6.1. Modulation. 6.2. BER of Modulation Scheme. 6.3. Rake Receiver. 6.4. Transmit-Reference (T-R) Technique. 6.5. UWB Range- Data Rate Performance. 6.6. UWB Channel Capacity. 6.7. Summary. Problems. References.
7. UWB Technologies. 7.1. Impulse Radio. 7.2. Pulsed Multiband. 7.3. Multiband OFDM. 7.4. Comparison of UWB Technologies. Problems. References.
8. UWB Wireless Locationing. 8.1. Position Locationing Methods. 8.2. Time of Arrival Estimation. 8.3. NLOS Location Error. 8.4. Locationing with OFDM. 8.5. Summary. Problems. References.
9. UWB Applications. 9.1. Wireless Ad hoc Networking. 9.2. UWB Wireless Sensor Networks. 9.3. RFID. 9.4. Consumer Electronics and Personal Computers (PC). 9.5. Asset Location. 9.6. Medical Applications. 9.7. Summary. Problems. References.
10. UWB Regulation. 10.1. UWB Regulation in US. 10.2. UWB Regulation in Europe. 10.3. UWB Regulation in Japan. 10.4. UWB Regulation in Korea. 10.5. UWB Regulation in Singapore. 10.6. UWB Regulation in ITU. 10.7. IEEE Standardisation. 10.8. Summary. Problems. References.
11. The Vision of Europe on UWB Applications. 11.1. Magnet (My Personal Adaptive Global NET). 11.2. Magnet Beyond. 11.3. Pulsers (Pervasive Ultra-wideband Low Spectral Energy Radio Systems) 11.4. Summary. References.
Prof. Ramjee Prasad is the Director of the Wireless Centre at Aalborg University in Denmark. He recently won a distinguished "Nordic" award for research achievements in the field of wireless communications. Ramjee Prasad is editor-in-chief for our Wireless Personal Communication journal and has also published over 15 books, mostly with Artech House though he is now eager to start publishing more of his books also with Springer.
Chapter 1 Introduction (p. 1-3)
At the end of XIXcentury, Maxwells work about electromagnetic waves opened a new era in human history. Heinrich Hertz, a German physicist, was the first to prove Maxwell mathematical theory. In 1894, an Italian scientist, Guglielmo Marconi, obsessed by the idea of a wireless connected-world, started to work in his under-roof laboratory, building up the first radio- communication apparatus. Besides the first radio links operating in Marconis estate, located nearby a small city in Italy, Bologna, the first UWB communication system was started in London and was linking two post offices at a distance greater than one mile. In a short while, spark gap became obsolete and, following the invention of the vacuum tube first, and transistors later, continuous wave transmissions faced on the scene.
The interest in UWB was renewed after the Second World War, when subnanosecond instruments became to be available. Since the last two decades of the millennium, continuous research activity in the fields of analog and digital electronics and antennas made possible commercial viableUWBsystems to be delivered. At the end of this chapter, after the historical background of UWB technology, a preview of the book is provided.
1.1 History of UWB
UWB history is generally perceived to start after 1960 with the development of Linear Time Invariant System description via impulse stimula. On the contrary, UWB transmissions history is much longer and goes back to the end of XIX century. At that time, telegraphy was already wide-spread but it was suffering because of the long wired connections which were difficult to be built and maintained, especially in case a river crossing was needed. Transatlantic cables were settled down using gutta-percha insulation but the maintenance was expensive and time consuming. The history of wireless communications can be considered to start at the en
d of XIX century with the work carried by Guglielmo Marconi. First wireless transmitters were exploiting spark gaps, resulting in very large bandwidth radio-frequency signals.
From the end of XIX century until nowadays, three eras can be devised in the history of development of UWB systems development:
- pioneering era
- subnanosecond era
- contemporary standardization and commercialization era.
Today, deep technical research is by no means extinguished, especially in the field of efficient receivers and position estimation techniques. We report major dates discussed in the following as well as in Table 1.1.
During the Pioneering Era, late nineteenth century, wireless world was about to start. In 1873 James Clerk Maxwell published his pioneering Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism reporting the basis equation for the travelling of the electromagnetic waves. In 1886 the German physicist Heinrich Rudolf Hertz proved Maxwells concept.
UWB history starts when Hertz solved Maxwells equation, exactly in 1886. Hertz realized two spark gap generators, each one coupled with an antenna. Producing a spark on the first, a gap was created also on the second generator which was at a certain distance. As a physicist, he was only interested in proving Maxwells concept and he did not realize the enormous potential of spark gap transmissions.
From the reviews:
"One of several books on ultra wideband (UWB) technologies, the Introduction to Ultra Wideband for Wireless Communications has coverage overlap with other titles. It includes history, basic theory ... considerations on UWD-specific issues (bandwidth, circuits, signal processing, and interference), applications and regulatory issues. Intended as a tutorial for graduate students and professionals, the book includes an index, black and white photos and figures, and end-of-chapter summaries and problems. (Bogdan Hoanca, Optics & Photonics News, December, 2009)
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